Encyclopedia Articles

The selection of articles presented in this section highlights the contributions made by the Institute's faculty and academic staff to the various Encyclopedias on Islam and Muslim civilizations in several languages.

A complete list of these encyclopedia contributions is available in this page from which some articles have been published on the IIS website and can be accessed online. 

Javdan-nama
Javdan-nama (also known as Javdan-nama-ye kabir or Javdan-nama-ye elahi), the major work of Fadhl-Allah Astarabadi (d. 1394; q.v.), the founder of the Hurufi movement. The title, which can be translated from Persian either as the “Eternal Book” or as the “Book of Eternity”, has been...
Ja‘far b. Mansur al-Yaman
This is an edited version of an article that was originally published in the Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. XIV, Fasc. 4, p. 349, in December 2008.   Ja‘far b. Manusr al-Yaman was a high-ranking Ismaili author who flourished during the reigns of the first four Fatimid caliphs. His father, Ibn...
Farid al-Din ‘Attar
Farid al-Din ‘Attar is one of the most famous mystic poets of Iran, and a contemporary of the philosophers/poets, Jalal al-Din Rumi and Nasir al-Din Tusi. One of his most well-known works, Mantiq al-Tayr, The Conference of the Birds, is a 4,500 line poem that traces the journey of 30 birds...
Ka‘ba or Kaaba
The Ka‘ba, situated in Mecca, is one of the most significant structures for Muslims. Throughout the world, it is the point of orientation for the daily ritual prayers of Muslims and is also the focal point of the Pilgrimage (hajj). According to Muslim tradition, it is also the location of the...
Shughni-Rushani
Language group within the family of Pamir languages, which belong to the Modern Eastern Iranian languages. Languages of the Shughni-Rushani group are spoken in the Central Asian republic of Tajikistan, particularly in the autonomous region of Badakhshan; in the Afghan province of Badakhshan;...
Vladmir Alekseevich Ivanow
Vladimir Alekseevich Ivanow, (b. St. Petersburg, Russia, 3 November 1886, d. Tehran, 19 June 1970; variously spelt Ivanov and Wladimir), was a Russian orientalist and leading pioneer in modern Ismaili studies. His father was a military doctor, and he spent his youth in his native city and...
“Gerdkuh”
A fortress on the summit of an isolated rocky hill in the Alburz mountains, situated some 18km west of Damgan in northern Persia. Thrust forward into a sloping plain, the hill of Gerdkuh rises about 300 metres above its base, and seen from the south, the access direction to the site, the hill...
Ismaili Literature in Persian and Arabic
Ismaili literature (“literature” is used here in its wider sense to include all the written products of scholarly disciplines delineated by learning, religion, and science) refers to the literary production of more than a millennium, from the middle of the 3rd/9th century (i.e., before the...
Taqwa
Taqwa is a verbal noun from taqa ‘to fear [God]’, itself a secondary formation from form VIII of w-k-y, ittaqa ‘to fear [God]’ (see on this phenomenon, Wright, Arabic Grammar, I, § 148 Rem.b). From this same secondary formation is derived the adjective taqi, pl. atqiya‘pious, God-fearing’, in...
Husayn B. ‘Ali: Life and Significance in Shi‘ism
According to most reports Husayn b. ‘Ali was born on 5 Sha‘ban 4/10 January 626 CE; another report mentions the middle of Jomada al-awwal 6/beginning of October 627 CE as his date of birth.

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