Glossary Terms

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Caliph

In Arabic khalifa, the head of the Muslim community. See caliphate.

Caliphate

The Muslim political institution or state centred around the caliph, which came to an end, historically, in 1924 with the disappearance of the Ottoman Empire.

Crusaders

A term applied to Christian invaders who carried out numerous campaigns to capture Jerusalem and Palestine from the Muslims in the 11th and 14th centuries CE.