Publication

  • Al-Ghazali and the Ismailis: A Debate on Reason and Authority in Medieval Islam.
    by:

    I.B. Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, London 2001, pp. xxi + 128.

    Ismaili Heritage Series 5

    ISBN Paperback:
    1 86064 819 3
    ISBN HardBack:
    1 86064 792 8
  • Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (AH 450/1058 - 505/1111 CE) is arguably one of the most influential thinkers in the history of Islamic thought and modern scholarship has awarded him a greater share of attention than any other mediaeval Muslim figure. As part of his corpus of some forty or more works, al-Ghazali wrote a number of treatises in which he attempted to refute the doctrines of the Ismailis. The most detailed of these is the Fada’ih al-Batiniyyainfo-icon wa fada’il al-Mustazhiriyya (The Infamies of the Batiniyya and the Virtues of the Mustazhiriyya) - more commonly referred to as the Kitab al-Mustazhiri.

    The purpose of the work was to systematically analyse and dismantle the Ismaili doctrine of ta‘lim, the ‘authoritative instruction’ of the imaminfo-icon of the time, as expounded by Hasan-i Sabbah (d. AH 518/1124 CE), the head of the Ismaili da‘wainfo-icon organisation in Persia at the time. Written during the formative phase of Hasan-i Sabbah’s activities, just before the Imam-Caliphinfo-icon al-Mustansir’s death, sometime between February 1094 and November 1095, al-Ghazali saw the Ismailis of Alamutinfo-icon as being an extension of the larger political rivalry the Fatimidsinfo-icon had with the Saljuqs. However, it is quite clear that al-Ghazali’s polemic, in spite of his many references to the Fatimid caliph in Egypt, was directed towards the activities and ideas connected with the infiltration of the Ismailis of Alamut inside the Saljuqinfo-icon empire. The Kitab al-Mustazhiri is probably the last composition before his personal crisis and departure from Baghdad towards the end of 1095, after which he turned into a reclusive traveller, returning almost eleven years later to a life dedicated to Sufi ideals.

    Questions about power and authority are at the heart of the Kitab al-Mustazhiri which brings us, so far as the written word can, face to face with the workings of al-Ghazali’s restless mind. His treatment of these questions reveals fully the complexity of the challenges facing his society, while at the same time reflecting the dilemmas of an intellectual whose conscience was caught between competing commitments.

    Situating al-Ghazali’s text within a wider intellectual and political history of ideas, Farouk Mitha illustrates how the Kitab al-Mustazhiri can serve as an instructive example for the study and understanding of central questions in mediaeval Islamic thought. Through close textual analysis, the author examines the key themes of the thesis expounded by al-Ghazali and explores the style of its argumentation. By treating the work as a repository of ideas, beyond its value simply as text, Al-Ghazali and the Ismailis re-evaluates the historical significance of the Kitab al-Mustazhiri as well as the political and ideological factors which motivated al-Ghazali to engage with the Ismailis of the Fatimid and early Alamut periods.

    Al-Ghazali’s debate with the Ismailis constitutes an important chapter in the history of Islamic thought. By exploring the wider intellectual and political significance of this encounter, and building upon the work of other scholars, this study presents novel insights into al-Ghazali’s work and the influential role of Ismaili thought in mediaeval Islam.

    Al-Ghazali and the Ismailis will be a valuable resource to students and scholars of Islamic Studies and Religious Studies more generally, in addition to those concerned with the intellectual, social and political history of Islam in the 5th/11th and 6th/12th centuries.

  • Foreword

    Preface

    Acknoweldgements

    Chronology

    1. Ecology of the Kitab al-Mustazhiri: Historical Place and Time

      Al-Ghazali and the Saljuqs
      Al-Ghazali and the Abbasid Caliphateinfo-icon
      Al-Ghazali and the Ismailis

    2. Anatomy of the Kitab al-Mustazhiri: Content and Style

      Al-Ghazali’s Muqaddima: A Justification
      Defining a Method
      The Adabinfo-icon al-Firaq Legacy: A Taxonomy of Exclusion
      The Place of Kalaminfo-icon: Reason and its Limits
      The Demands of Fiqhinfo-icon: Limits and Norms
      The Body Politic in Medieval Islam: Justification and Narcissism

    3. Towards a Re-reading of the Kitab al-Mustazhiri

      Orthodoxy: A Problem of Interpretation
      Reason: Subjectivity versus Objectivity
      Authority: Spiritual versus Temporal

    Notes

    Bibliography

    Index

  • Alibhai, Mohamed A. ‘Abu Ya‘qub al-Sijistani and Kitab Sullam al-Najat’, Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 1983.

    Anawati, G.C. and Louis Gardet. Introduction a la théologie Musulmane: essai de théologie comparée. Paris, 1970.

    Arkoun, Mohammed. ‘The Concept of Authority in Islamic Thought: La hukma illa lillah’, in C.E. Bosworth et al., ed., The Islamic World from Classical to Modern Times: Essays in Honor of Bernard Lewis, Princeton, NJ, 1989, pp. 31-54. -. Rethinking Islam Today. Washington, 1987.

    al-Ash‘ari, Abu’1-Hasan. Kitab maqalat al-islamiyyin, ed. H. Ritter. Istanbul, 1929-1930.

    Al-Azmeh, Aziz. Arabic Thought and Islamic Societies. London, 1986.

    Badawi, ‘Abd al-Rahman. Mu’allafat al-Ghazali. Cairo, 1961.

    al-Baghdadi, ‘Abd al-Qahir. al-Farq bayn al-firaq, ed. M. Badr. Cairo, 1910. English tr., part 1, K.C. Seelye, Moslem Schisms and Sects, New York, 1919.

    Binder, Leonard. ‘Al-Ghazali’s Theory of Government’, Muslim World, 45, (1955), pp. 233-40.

    Bosworth, C. Edmund. ‘The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (AD 1000-1217)’, in The Cambridge History of Iran: Volume 5, The Saljuqinfo-icon and Mongol Periods, ed. JA. Boyle. Cambridge, 1968, pp. 1-202.

    -. ‘Barbarian Invasions: The Coming of the Turks into the Islamic World’, in D.S. Richards, ed., Islamic Civilisation, pp. 1-16.

    Bouyges, M. Essai de chronologie des oeuvres de al-Ghazali, ed. M. Allard. Beirut, 1959.

    Busse, H. ‘The Revival of Persian Kingship under the Buyidsinfo-icon’, in D.S. Richards, ed., Islamic Civilisation, pp. 47-69.

    Cahen, Claude. ‘L’Evolution de l’iqta‘ du IXe au XIIe siècle: contribution a une histoire comparée des sociétés médiévales’, in Les Peuples musulmans dans l’histoire médiévale. Damascus, 1977, pp. 231-70.

    -. ‘Mouvements populaires et autonomisme urban dans l’Asie musulmane du moyen age’ Arabica, 5 (1958), pp. 225-50.

    -. ‘The Turkish Invasion: The Selchukids’, in A History of the Crusades, ed. K.M. Setton: Volume 1, The First Hundred Years, ed. M.W. Baldwin. 2nd ed., Madison, Wisconsin, 1969, pp. 175-6.

    -. ‘Tribes, Cities, and Social Organization’, in The Cambridge History of Iran: Volume 4, The Period from the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs, ed. R.N. Frye. Cambridge, 1975, pp. 308-28.

    -. Pre-Ottoman Turkey, tr. J. James-Williams. London, 1968.

    -. Les Peuples musulmans dans l’histoire médiévale. Damascus, 1977.

    Calder, Norman. ‘The Limits of Islamic Orthodoxy’, in F. Daftary, ed., Intellectual Traditions in Islam. London, 2000, pp. 66-86.

    Canard, Marius. ‘Fatimidsinfo-icon’, EI2, vol. 2, pp. 850-62.

    Corbin, Henry. ‘The Isma‘ili Response to the Polemic of Ghazali’, in S.H. Nasr, ed., Isma‘ili Contributions to Islamic Culture. Tehran, 1977, PP.67-98. -. History of Islamic Philosophy, tr. L. Sherrard. London, 1993.

    Dabashi, Hamid. Authority in Islam: From the Rise of Muhammad to the Establishment of the Umayyadsinfo-icon. New Brunswick, NJ, 1989.

    Daftary, Farhad. The Isma‘ilisinfo-icon: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge, 1990.

    -. The Assassin Legends: Myths of the Isma‘ilis. London, 1994

    -. ed., Mediaeval Isma‘ili History and Thought. Cambridge, 1996.

    -. ‘The Ismaili Da‘wainfo-icon outside the Fatimid Dawlainfo-icon’, in M. Barrucand, ed., L’Egypte Fatimide, son art et son histoire. Paris, 1999, pp. 29-43.

    Djait, Hichem. Europe and Islam: Cultures and Modernity. Berkeley, CA, 1985.

    Eliot, T.S. ‘Tradition and the Individual Talent’, in Frank Kermode, ed., Selected Prose of T.S. Eliot. London, 1975, pp. 37-44

    Esmail, Aziz. The Poetics of Religious Experience: The Islamic Context. London, 1988.

    Ess, Josef, van. ‘The Logical Structure of Islamic Theology’, in G.E. von Grunebaum, ed., Logic in Classical Islamic Culture. Wiesbaden, 1970, pp.21-50.

    -. ‘Scepticism in Islamic Religious Thought’, in C. Malik, ed., God and Man in Contemporary Islamic Thought. Beirut, 1972, pp. 83-98.

    -. ‘ ;Quelques remarques sur le Munqidh min al-dalal’, in Ghazali: La raison et le miracle. Paris, 1987, pp. 56-68.

    Frank, Richard M. ‘Al-Ash‘ari’s Conception of the Nature and Role of Speculative Reasoning in Theology’, in Frithiof Rugren, ed., Proceedings of the Sixth Congress of Arabic and Islamic Studies. Stockholm, 1975, pp. 136-54

    -. Beings and Their Attributes. Albany, NY, 1978.

    -. ‘The Science of kalaminfo-icon’, Arabic Science and Philosophy, 2 (1992), pp. 9-37

    -. Al-Ghazali and the Ash‘arite School. Durham, NC, 1994.

    al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad. Fada’ih al-Batiniyyainfo-icon wa fada’il al-Mustazhiriyya, ed. ‘Abd al-Rahman Badawi. Cairo, 1964. English tr. Richard J. McCarthy in Freedom and Fulfillment. Boston, 1980, pp. 175-286.

    -. Faysal al-tafriqa bayn al-Islam wa’l-zandaqa, ed. Sulayman Dunyainfo-icon. Cairo, 1961.

    -. al-Iqtisad fi’l-i‘tiqad, ed. I.A. Cubukcu and H. Atay. Ankara, 1962.

    -. al-Mustasfa min ‘ilminfo-icon al-usul, ed. Muhammad ‘Abd al-Salaminfo-icon al-Thani. Beirut, 1993.

    -. Mishkat al-anwar, English tr. David Buchman, The Niche of Lights. Provo, Utah, 1998.

    -. al-Munqidh min al-dalal, ed. Farid jabre. Beirut, 1959. English tr. Richard J. McCarthy in Freedom and Fulfillment. Boston, 1980, pp. 61-115.

    -. Nasihat al-muluk, English tr. F.R.C. Bagely, Ghazali’s Book of Counsel for Kings. Oxford, 1964.

    -. Qawasim al-Batiniyya, ed. A. Ates, in Ilahiyat Fakultesi Dergisi, 3 (1954) pp. 23-54

    -. al-Qistas al-mustaqim, ed. V. Chelot. Beirut, 1959. English tr. Richard J. McCarthy in Freedom and Fulfillment. Boston, 1980, pp. 287-333. -. Tahafut al falasifa, English tr. Michael E. Marmura, The Incoherence of the Philosophers. Provo, Utah, 1997.

    Gibb, Hamilton A.R. ‘Al-Mawardi’s Theory of the Caliphateinfo-icon’, in SJ. Shaw and W.R. Polk, ed., Studies on the Civilisation of Islam. Boston, 1962, pp. 151-65.

    Goldziher, Ignaz. Die Streitschrift des Ghazali gegen die Batinijja-Sekte. Leiden, 1916.

    Hallaq, Wael B. ‘Caliphs, Jurists and the Saljuqs in the Political Thought of Juwayni’, Muslim World, 74 (1984), pp. 26-41.

    -. ‘On Inductive Corroboration, Probability, and Certainty in Sunni Legal Thought’, in Nicholas Heer, ed., Islamic Law and Jurisprudence: Studies in Honour of Farhat j. Ziadeh. Seattle, 1990, pp. 6-31.

    -. ‘Logic, Formal Arguments and Formalization of Arguments in Sunni Jurisprudence’, Arabica, 37 (1990), pp. 315-58.

    -. ‘The Primacy of the Qur’aninfo-icon in Shatibi’s Legal Theory’, in Wael B. Hallaq and Donald P. Little, ed., Islamic Studies Presented to Charles J. Adams. Leiden, 1991, pp. 69-90.

    -. ‘Usul al-Fiqhinfo-icon: Beyond Tradition’, Journal of Islamic Studies, 3 (1992), pp. 172-202.

    -. Ibn Taymiyya Against The Greek Logicians. Oxford, 1993.

    -. Law and Legal Theory in Classical and Medieval Islam. Aldershot, 1995

    -. A History of Islamic Legal Theories. Cambridge, 1997.

    Halm, Heinz. The Fatimids and their Traditions of Learning. London, 1997

    Hamdani, Abbas. The Beginnings of the Isma‘ili Da‘wa in Northern India. Cairo, 1956.

    -. ‘Evolution of the Organisational Structure of the Fatimi Da‘wah’, Arabian Studies, 3 (1976), pp. 85-1 14.

    -. ‘The Tayyibi-Fatimid Community of the Yaman at the Time of the Ayyubid Conquest of Southern Arabia’, Arabian Studies, 7 (1985), pp. 151-60.

    Hillenbrand, Carole. ‘Islamic Orthodoxy or Realpolitik? Al-Ghazali’s Views on Government’, in Iran: Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, 26 (1988), pp. 81-94.

    -. ‘The Power Struggle between the Saljuqs and the Isma‘ilis of Alamutinfo-icon: The Saljuq Perspective’, in F. Daftary, ed., Mediaeval Isma‘ili History and Thought. Cambridge, 1996, pp. 205-20.

    Hodgson, Marshall G.S. The Order of Assassins: The Struggle of the Early Nizari Isma‘ilis Against the Islamic World. The Hague, 1955

    -. ‘The Isma‘ili State’, in The Cambridge History of Iran: Volume 5, The Saljuq and Mongol Periods, ed. JA. Boyle. Cambridge, 1968, pp. 422-82

    -. The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization. Chicago, 1974.

    Hourani, George F. ‘The Chronology of Ghazali’s Writings’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 79 (1959), pp. 225-33

    -. ‘A Revised Chronology of Ghazali’s Writings’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 104 (1984), pp. 284-302.

    Humphreys, R. Stephen. Islamic History: A Framework for Inquiry. Rev. ed., London, 1991.

    Hunsberger, Alice C. Nasir Khusraw: The Ruby of Badakhshan. London, 2000.

    Ivanow, Wladimir. Ismaili Literature: A Bibliographical Survey. Tehran, 1963.

    Izutsu, Toshihiko. The Concept of Belief in Islamic Theology: A Semantic Analysis of Iman and Islam. Tokyo, 1965.

    Ja‘far b. Mansur al-Yaman. Kitab al-‘Alim wa’l-ghulam, ed. and English tr., James W. Morris, The Master and the Disciple: An Early Islamic Spiritual Dialogue. London, forthcoming.

    al-Juwayni. Ghiyath al-umam, ed. F. ‘Abd al-Mun‘im and M. Hilmi. Alexandria, 1979.

    Lambton, Ann K.S. ‘Reflections on the Iqta‘,’ in George Makdisi, ed., Arabic and Islamic Studies in Honor of Hamilton A.R. Gibb. Cambridge, MA, 1965, pp. 358-75

    -. ‘The Internal Structure of the Saljuq Empire’, in The Cambridge History of Iran: Volume 5. The Saljuq and Mongol Periods, ed. JA. Boyle. Cambridge, 1968, pp. 203-82.

    -. Landlord and Peasant in Persia: A Study of Land Tenure and Land Revenue Administration. 2nd. ed., London, 1969.

    -. State and Government in Medieval Islam. Oxford, 1981. -. Continuity and Change in Medieval Persia: Aspects of Administrative, Economic, and Social History, 11-14th Century. Albany, NY, 1988.

    Landolt, Hermann. ‘Ghazali and Religionswissenschaft’, Asiatische Studien-Etudes Asiatiques, 45 (1991) pp. 19-72.

    Laoust, Henri. La Politique de Gazali. Paris, 1970.

    Lazarus-Yafeh, H. Studies in al-Ghazzali. Jerusalem, 1975.

    Leaman, Oliver. Introduction to Medieval Islamic Philosophy. Cambridge, 1985.

    Lewis, Bernard. ‘Some Observations on the Significance of Heresy in the History of Islam’, Studia Islamica, 1 (1953), pp. 43-63.

    -. ‘Politics and War’, in J. Schacht and C.E. Bosworth, ed., The Legacy of Islam, 2nd. ed., Oxford, 1974, pp. 156-209

    Madelung,Wilferd. ‘Aspects of Isma‘ili Theology: The Prophetic Chain and the God Beyond Being’, in S.H. Nasr, ed., Isma‘ili Contributions to Islamic Culture. Tehran, 1977, pp. 51-65.

    -. ‘The Sources of Isma‘ili Law’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 35 (1976), pp. 29-4o, reprinted in W. Madelung, Religious Schools and Sects in Medieval Islam. London, 1985, article xviii.

    -. Religious Trends in Early Islamic Iran. Albany, NY, 1988.

    -. The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge, 1997.

    Mahdiinfo-icon, Muhsin. ‘The Rational Tradition in Islam’, in F. Daftary, ed., Intellectual Traditions in Islam. London, 2000, pp. 43-65.

    Makdisi, George. ‘The Topography of Eleventh Century Baghdad’, Arabica, 6 (1959), pp. 178-97 and pp. 281-309.

    -. ‘Muslim Institutions of Learning in Eleventh Century Baghdad’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 22 (1961), pp. 1-56.

    -. Ash‘ari and the Ash‘arites in Islamic Religious History’, Studia Islamica, 17 (1962), pp. 37-8o and 18 (1963), pp. 19-40.

    -. ‘The Marriage of Tughril Beg’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 1 (1970), pp. 259-75

    -. ‘The Sunni Revival’, in D.S. Richards, ed., Islamic Civilisation, pp. 155-68.

    -. The Rise of Colleges: Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West. Edinburgh, 1981. -. ‘Hanbalite Islam’, in M.L. Swartz, ed. and tr., Studies on Islam. New York, 1981, pp. 216-74.

    -. ‘Authority in the Islamic Community’, in G. Makdisi, ed., La Notion d’autorité au moyen age: Islam, Byzance, Occident. Paris, 1982, pp. 117-26.

    -. ‘The Juridical Theology of Shafi‘iinfo-icon: Origins and Significance of Usul al fiqh’, Studia Islamica, 59 (1984), pp. 5-48.

    -. The Rise of Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West: with Special Reference to Scholasticism. Edinburgh, 1990.

    Massignon, Louis. Recueil de textes inédits concernant l’histoire de la mystique aux pays d’Islam. Paris, 1929.

    al-Mawardi, Abu’1-Hasan ‘Ali. al-Ahkam al-sultaniyya, ed. R. Enger. Bonn, 1853

    Mez, Adam. The Renaissance of Islam, English tr. S. Khuda Bakhsh and D.S. Margoliouth. New York, 1975.

    Mottahedeh, Roy P. ‘The Abbasid Caliphate in Iran’, in The Cambridge History of Iran: Volume 4, The Period from the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs, ed. R.N. Frye. Cambridge, 1975, pp. 57-84.

    Nanji, Azim. ‘Isma‘ilism’, in S.H. Nasr, ed., Islamic Spirituality: Foundations. London, 1987, pp. 179-98.

    -. ‘Isma‘ili Philosophy’, in S.H. Nasr and O. Leaman, ed., History of Islamic Philosophy. London, 1996, vol. 1, pp. 144-54.

    -. ‘Portraits of Self and Others: Ismaili Perspectives on the History of Religions’ in F. Daftary, ed., Mediaeval Isma‘ili History and Thought. Cambridge, 1996, pp.153-6o.

    Nizam al-Mulk. Siyasat-nama, English tr. Herbert Drake, The Book of Government or Rules for Kings. 2nd ed., London, 1978.

    Ormsby, Eric. ‘The Taste of Truth: The Structure of Experience in al-Ghazali’s al-Munqidh min al-dalal’, in Wael B. Hallaq and Donald P. Little, ed., Islamic Studies Presented to Charles J. Adams. Leiden, 1991, pp. 133-52.

    -. Theodicy in Islamic Thought: The Dispute over al-Ghazali’s ‘Best Of all Possible Worlds’. Princeton, NJ, 1984.

    Palacios, Asin. M. La Espiritualidad de Algazel. Madrid, 1935.

    Poonawala, Ismail K. Biobibliography of Isma‘ili Literature. Malibu, CA, 1977.

    Rahman, Fazlur. Revival and Reform in Islam, ed. Ebrahim Moosa. Boston, 2000.

    Richards, D.S., ed. Islamic Civilisation, 950- 1150. Oxford, 1973.

    Rosenthal, Erwin. Political Thought in Medieval Islam. Cambridge, 1962.

    Schacht, Joseph. ‘Theology and Law in Islam’, in G.E. von Grunebaum, ed., Theology and Law in Islam, Wiesbaden, 1971, pp. 3-23.

    -. Introduction to Islamic Law. Oxford, 1964.

    al-Shahrastini, Muhammad b.‘Abd al-Karim. Kitab al-Milal wa’l-nihal. London, 1846. Partial English tr. A.K. Kazi and J.G. Flynn, Muslim Sects and Divisions. London, 1984.

    Stern, Samuel M. Studies in Early Isma‘ilism. Jerusalem and Leiden, 1983.

    Strauss, Leo. Persecution and the Art of Writing. Glencoe, IL, 1952.

    Tibawi, A..L. ‘Al-Ghazali’s Sojourn in Damascus and Jerusalem’, Muslim World, 9 (1965), pp. 198-211.

    al-Tusi, Nasir al-Dininfo-icon Muhammad. Sayr wa suluk, ed. and English tr. S.J. Badakhchani, Contemplation and Action. London, 1998.

    al-Walid, ‘Ali b. Muhammad. Damigh al-batil wa hatf al-munadil, ed. M. Ghalib. Beirut, 1982.

    Walker, Paul E. ‘An Isma‘ili Answer to the Problem of Worshipping the Unknowable, Neoplatonic God’, American Journal of Arabic Studies, 2 (1974) pp. 7-21.

    -. Early Philosophical Shiism: The Ismaili Neoplatonism of Abu Ya‘qub al-Sijistani. Cambridge, 1993.

    -. Abu Ya‘qub al-Sijistani: Intellectual Missionary. London, 1996. -. Hamid al-Din al-Kirmani: Ismaili Thought in the Age of al-Hakim. London, 1999.

    Watt, William Montgomery. ‘The Authenticity of the Works Attributed to al-Ghazali’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1952), pp. 24-45

    -. Muslim Intellectual: A Study of al-Ghazali. Edinburgh, 1963 -. The Formative Period of Islamic Thought. Edinburgh, 1973.

    -. ‘The Great Community and the Sects’, in G.E. Von Grunebaum, ed., Theology and Law in Islam. Wiesbaden, 1971, pp. 25-36.

    -. ‘Authority in the Thought of Al-Ghazali’, in G. Makdisi, ed., La Notion d’autorite au moyen age: Islam, Byzance, Occident. Paris, 1982, pp. 57-67

    Weber, Max. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, tr. and ed., H.H. Gerth and C.W. Mills. New York, 1959.

    Weiss, Bernard G. ‘Interpretation in Islamic Law: The Theory of Ijtihad’, American Journal of Comparative Law, 26 (1978), pp. 199-212.

    -. ‘Knowledge of the Past: The Theory of Tawatur According to Ghazali’, Studia Islamica, 61 (1985), pp. 81-105.

    -. ‘Exotericism and Objectivity in Islamic jurisprudence’, in Nicholas Heer, ed., Islamic Law and Jurisprudence: Studies in Honour of Farhat J. Ziadeh. Seattle, 1990, pp. 53-72.

    -. ‘Law in Islam and in the West: Some Comparative Observations, in Wael B. Hallaq and Donald P. Little, ed., Islamic Studies Presented to Charles J. Adams. Leiden, 1991, pp. 239-54.

    -. The Search for God’s Law: Islamic Jurisprudence in the Writings of Sayf al-din Amidi. Salt Lake City, Utah, 1992.

     

  • Dr. Farouk Mitha

    English
    Dr. Farouk Mitha is a lecturer in the Faculty of Education at University of Victoria, Canada. He was Academic Course Director at the Institute of Ismaili Studies (IIS), for the Secondary Teacher Education Programme (STEP) from 2008-2011, and is currently involved with the IIS in developing curricula for Human Resource Development Programmes. He has a B.A. in History from the University of Toronto, a M.A in Islamic Studies from McGill, a M.A in International Education from the University of London, and a Ph.D. in English Literature and Education from the University of Victoria. His current...Read more