Publication

  • The second largest Shi‘i Muslim community after the Ithna‘ashari or Twelversinfo-icon, the Ismailis have had a long and complex history dating back to the formative period of Islam. Subsequently, they became subdivided into a number of major branches and minor groups. However, since the beginning of the 12th century CE, the Ismailis have existed in terms of two main branches, the Nizarisinfo-icon and the Tayyibi Must‘alians, who have been respectively designated as Khojasinfo-icon and Bohras in South Asia. The Tayyibisinfo-icon themselves were in due course split into the dominant Da’udi and minority Sulaymani and ‘Alavi communities. Currently, the Ismailis of different communities are dispersed as religious minorities in more than 25 countries of Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Europe and North America.

    Numbering several millions, the Ismailis represent a diversity of ethnicities and literary traditions, and speak a variety of languages and dialects. The majoritarian Nizari Ismaili community now recognises His Highness Prince Karim Aga Khan IVinfo-icon as their 49th hereditary Imaminfo-icon or spiritual leader. The Da’udi, Sulaymani and ‘Alavi Tayyibi Ismailis are led by different lines of da‘iinfo-icons with supreme authority while all the Tayyibi Imams have remained in concealment and are inaccessible to their followers.

    Until the middle of the 20th century, the Ismailis were by and large misrepresented with a variety of myths and legends circulating about their teachings and practices. This was due to the fact that they were almost exclusively studied and evaluated, in both Western and Muslim countries, on the basis of evidence collected or fabricated by their detractors. These perceptions of the Ismailis have been drastically revised, however, by the results of modern scholarship in Ismaili studies, based on an increasing number of manuscript sources produced in different phases of Ismaili history. The rich and varied Ismaili literature recovered and studied in modern times, especially since the 1940s, has particularly enhanced our knowledge of the mediaeval history and traditions of the Ismailis.

    But the modern period in Ismaili history, covering approximately the last two centuries, has not received its deserved share of benefit from the recent progress in Ismaili studies. A major reason for this stems from the fact that adequate textual sources on the modern history of the Ismailis in various regions have not always been available, while it remains extremely difficult for non-Ismaili scholars who do not have the relevant language skills to tap into the rich oral traditions existing in the regions where the Ismailis have lived for centuries.

    In sum, it seems that a suitable modern history of the Ismailis still awaits much preparatory work. Only then may we begin to have a better understanding of the evolution of the Ismaili communities of various regions together with their heritage and literary traditions. A Modern History of the Ismailis represents a first attempt in that direction.

    This book contains chapters on the modern history of the Nizari Ismailis of several regions where these communities have traditionally lived. These chapters are mostly written by Ismaili scholars, both young and well established, who have the necessary language skills as well as familiarity with these communities’ oral and literary traditions. There is a chapter devoted to the issue of Nizari settlement in the West, an important phenomenon since the mid-twentieth century. A few chapters also deal with the reforms and institutional initiatives of the last two Nizari Imams, Aga Khaninfo-icon III and Aga Khan IV, and their achievements.

    A separate section is devoted to the modern history of the Tayyibi Must‘alian Ismailis, now dominated by the Da’udi Bohrasinfo-icon of South Asia. The authors of the Tayyibi chapters too are well placed as young scholars belonging to a prominent family within the leadership hierarchy of the Da’udi Bohrainfo-icon community and, as such, have had access to the sources of information required for approaching their subjects.

    These collected studies should not be taken to represent the final word on their subject matters. Several chapters, in fact, may reflect work in progress, as the state of our knowledge on modern Ismaili history is still continuously undergoing revision and enhancement. One main aim here, as with all research and publications at the Institute, has been to facilitate scholarship and to contribute to further progress in the field of Ismaili studies.

     Download Introduction (434 KB)

     
  • Preface xiii
    Note on Transliteration and Abbreviations xvi
    Notes on the Contributors xvii
    1.Introduction  
    Farhad Daftary 1
    Part I. NIZARI ISMAILIS: SYRIA, CENTRAL ASIA AND CHINA  
    2. Modern History of the Nizari Ismailis of Syria
    Dick Douwes 19
    3. The Nizari Ismailis of Central Asia in Modern Times
    Hakim Elnazarov and Sultonbek Aksakolov 45
    4. The Nizari Ismailis of China in Modern Times
    Amier Saidula 77
    Part II. NIZARI ISMAILIS: SOUTH ASIA AND EAST AFRICA
     
     
     
    5. From Satpanthi to Ismaili Muslim: The Articulation of Ismaili Khoja Identity in South Asia
    Ali S. Asani 95
    6. The Socio-Legal Formation of the Nizari Ismailis of East Africa, 1800–1950
    Zulfikar Hirji 129
    7. Communities of Tradition and the Modernizing of Education in South Asia: The Contribution of Aga Khaninfo-icon III
    Shiraz Thobani 161
    Part III. NIZARI ISMAILIS: CONTEMPORARY POLICIES, INSTITUTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES
     
     
     
    8. The Aga Khan Development Network and Institutions
    Malise Ruthven 189
    9. Caring for the Built Environment
    Stefano Bianca 221
    10. The Gender Policies of Aga Khan III and Aga Khan IV
    Zayn R. Kassam 247
    11. At the Interstices of Tradition, Modernity and Postmodernity: Ismaili Engagements with Contemporary Canadian Society
    Karim H. Karim 265
    Part IV. TAYYIBI MUSTA 'LIAN ISMAILIS
     
     
     
    12. History of the Daʾudi Bohrainfo-icon Tayyibisinfo-icon in Modern Times: The Daʿis, the Daʿwat and the Community
    Saifiyah Qutbuddin 297
    13. The Daʾudi Bohra Tayyibis: Ideology, Literature, Learning and Social Practice
    Tahera Qutbuddin 331
    14. A Brief Note on Other Tayyibi Communities: Sulaymanisinfo-icon and ʿAlavis
    Tahera Qutbuddin 355
    Glossary 359
    Select Bibliography 365
    Index 381

     

  • Abdul Husain, Mian Bhai. Gulzare Daudi for the Bohras of India. Ahmedabad,

    1920.

    Abdulhussein, Mustafa. ‘Burhanuddin, Sayyidna Muhammad’, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford,1995, vol. 1, pp. 237–238.

    ___ al-Daiinfo-icon al-Fatimi, Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddin: An Illustrated Biography.London, 2001.

    Adamji, Ebrahimjee Noorbhai. ‘My Journeys to the Interior’, in Cynthia Salvadori and Julia Aldrick, ed., Two Indian Travellers: East Africa 1902– 1905. Mombasa, 1997, pp. 1–97.

    Aga Khaninfo-icon III, Sultan Muhammad Shahinfo-icon. India in Transition: A Study in Political Evolution. Bombay and Calcutta, 1918.

    ___ The Memoirs of Aga Khan: World Enough and Time. London, 1954.

    ___ Precious Pearls. Farmaninfo-icon Mubarak Hazrat Imaminfo-icon Mowlana Sultan Mohammad Shah. Karachi, n.d.

    ___ Aga Khan III: Selected Speeches and Writings of Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah,

    ed. K. K. Aziz. London, 1997–1998.

    Aga Khan Award for Architecture. Modernity and Community: Architecture in the Islamic World. London, 2001.

    ___ Architecture and Polyphony: Building in the Islamic World Today. London,

    2004.

    Aga Khan Trust for Culture. Historic Cities Programme: Karimabad and Baltit Project Development. Geneva, 1996.

    Ahmad, Aziz. Studies in Islamic Culture in the Indian Environment. Delhi, 1964.

    ___ An Intellectual History of Islam in India. Edinburgh, 1969.

    ___ Islams and Modernities. London, 1993.

    Ahmed, Akbar. Postmodernism and Islam: Predicament and Promise. London,1992.

    Ahmed, Imtiaz. ‘Exclusion and Assimilation in Indian Islam’, in Attar Singh, ed., Socio-cultural Impact of Islam on India. Chandigarh, 1976, pp. 85–105.

    Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam. New Haven and London, 1992.

    Ahmed, Rafiuddin. The Bengal Muslims, 1871–1906: A Quest for Identity. Delhi,1981.

    Aitken, E. H. Gazetteer of the Province of Sindhinfo-icon. Karachi, 1907; 2nd ed., Karachi,1986.

    Alexander, Christopher. The Timeless Way of Building. New York, 1979.

    Algar, Hamid. ‘The Revolt of Agha Khan Mahallati and the Transference of the Ismaʿili Imamateinfo-icon to India’, Studia Islamica, 29 (1969), pp. 61–81.

    ___ ‘Mahallati, Agha Khan’, EI2, vol. 5, pp. 1221–1222.

    ___ ‘Aqa Khaninfo-icon’, EIR, vol. 2, pp. 170–175.

    Ali, Ameer. ‘A Cry from the Indian Mahommedans’, The Nineteenth Century (1882), pp. 193–215.

    Ali, Hamid. ‘The Customary and Statutory Law of the Muslims in India’, Islamic Culture, 11 (1937), pp. 354–369, 444–454.

    Ali, Mujtaba. The Origins of the Khojahs and their Religious Life Today. Bonn,1936.

    Amiji, Hatim M. ‘The Asian Communities’, in James Kritzeck and William H.Lewis, ed., Islam in Africa. New York, 1969, pp. 141–181.

    ___ ‘Some Notes on Religious Dissent in Nineteenth-Century East Africa’,African Historical Studies, 4 (1971), pp. 603–616.

    Amin, Mahmud. Taʾrikh Salamiyyainfo-icon fi khamsin qarn. Damascus, 1983.

    Amirinfo-icon-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali. The Divine Guide in Early Shiʿism: The Sources of Esotericism in Islam, tr. D. Streight. Albany, NY, 1994.

    Anderson, James N. D. ‘The Ismaʿili Khojasinfo-icon of East Africa: A New Constitution and Personal Law for the Community’, Middle Eastern Studies, 1 (1964), pp.21–39.

    ___ Islamic Law in Africa. London, 1955; 2nd ed., London, 1970.

    Appadurai, Arjun. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization.Minneapolis, MN, 1996.

    Arkoun, Mohammed. Rethinking Islam: Common Questions, Uncommon Answers, tr. Robert D. Lee. Boulder, CO, 1994.
     
    Arnould, Joseph. Judgement of the Honourable Sir Joseph Arnould in the Khojah Case, otherwise known as the Aga Khan Case. Bombay, 1867.

    Asani, Ali S. ‘The Khojkiinfo-icon Script: A Legacy of Ismaili Islam in the Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent’, JAOS, 107 (1987), pp. 439–449.

    ___ The Bujh Niranjan: An Ismaili Mystical Poem. Cambridge, MA, 1991.

    ___ The Harvard Collection of Ismaili Literature in Indic Languages: A Descriptive Catalog and Finding Aid. Boston, MA, 1992.

    ___ ‘The Ismaili ginaninfo-icons as Devotional Literature’, in R. S. McGregor, ed.,Devotional Literature in South Asia: Current Research, 1985–1988.Cambridge, 1992, pp. 101–112.

    ___ ‘Muslims in South Asia: Defining Community and the “Other”’, Bulletin of the Royal Institute for Inter-faith Studies, 2 (2000), pp. 103–113.
     
    ___ ‘The Khojas of South Asia: Defining a Space of their Own’, Cultural Dynamics, 13 (2001), pp. 155–168.

    ___ Ecstasy and Enlightenment: The Ismaili Devotional Literature of South Asia.London, 2002.

    ___ ‘Ismaʿili Muslim Americans’, in Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History,ed. Edward E. Curtis IV. New York, 2010, vol. 1., pp. 303–305.

    Al-Azmeh, Aziz. Islams and Modernities. London, 1993.

    Bakari, Mohamed. ‘Asian Muslims in Kenya’, in Mohamed Bakari and Saad S. Yahaya, ed., Islam in Kenya: Proceedings of the National Seminar on Contemporary Islam in Kenya. Nairobi, 1995, pp. 58–63.

    Barlas, Asma. ‘Believing Women’ in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qurʾan. Austin, TX, 2002.

    Barrès, Maurice. Une enquête aux pays du Levant. Paris, 1923.

    Barrucand, Marianne, ed. L’Égypte Fatimide, son art et son histoire. Paris, 1999.

    Basu, A. The Growth of Education and Political Development in India, 1898–1920. Delhi, 1974.

    Batatu, Hana. Syria’s Peasantry, the Descendants of its Lesser Rural Notables and their Policies. Princeton, 1999.

    Bhabha, Homi. The Location of Culture. London, 1994.

    Bianca, Stefano. Urban Form in the Arab World: Past and Present. London and New York, 2000.

    ___ , ed. Karakoram: Hidden Treasures in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Geneva and Turin, 2005.

    ___ , ed. Syria: Medieval Citadels between East and West. Geneva and Turin, 2007.

    Bianca, Stefano and Philip Jodidio, ed. Cairo: Revitalising a Historic Metropolis.Geneva and Turin, 2004.

    Billimoria, N. M. Bibliography of the Publications related to Sindh and Baluchistan.2nd ed., Lahore, 1977.

    Blank, Jonah. Mullahs on the Mainframe: Islam and Modernity among the Daudi Bohras. Chicago, 2001.

    Bliss, Frank. Social and Economic Changes in the Pamirs. London, 2006.

    Bobrinskoy, Aleksey A. ‘Secta Ismailiya v Ruskikh Bukharskikh Predelakh Sredniy Azii’, Etnograficheskoe Obozrenie, 2 (1902), pp. 1–20.

    Boivin, Michel. ‘The Reform of Islam in Ismaili Shiʿism from 1885 to 1957’, in Françoise ‘Nalini’ Delvoye, ed., Confluence of Cultures: French Contributions to Indo-Persian Studies. New Delhi, 1994, pp. 197–216.

    ___ ‘New Problems Related to the History and to the Tradition of the Agakhani Khojahs in Karachi and Sindh’, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 46 (1998), pp. 5–33.

    ___ La rénovation du Shiʿisme Ismaélien en Inde et au Pakistan. D’après les écrits et les discours de Sultan Muhammad Shah Aga Khan (1902–1954). London,2003.

    ___ ‘Ginans and the Management of the Religious Heritage of the Ismaili Khojas in Sindh’, in Tazim R. Kassam and F. Mallison, ed., Ginans: Texts and Contexts, Essays on Ismaili Hymns from South Asia in Honour of Zawahir Moir. New Delhi, 2007, pp. 25–53.

    ___ , ed. Les Ismaéliens d’Asie du Sud. Paris, 2007.

    Bonnett, Alastair. The Idea of the West: Culture, Politics and History. New York, 2004.

    Brennan, James. ‘South Asian Nationalism in an East African Context: The Case of Tanganyika, 1914–1956’, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 19 (1999), pp. 24–38.

    Brett, Michael. The Rise of the Fatimidsinfo-icon: The World of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the Fourth Century of the Hijrainfo-icon, Tenth Century CE. Leiden,2001.
     
    Burckhardt, Titus. Mirror of the Intellect: Essays on Traditional Science and Sacred Art. Cambridge, 1987.
     
    Burhanpuri, Qutbinfo-icon al-Dininfo-icon b. Sulaymanji. Muntazaʿ al-akhbar, vol. 2, partial ed. Samer F. Traboulsi. Beirut, 1999.
     
    Burton, Richard F. The Races that Inhabited the Valley of Indus. Karachi. 1851;2nd ed., Karachi, 1981.

    ___ Zanzibar Island, City and Coast. London, 1872.

    Calder, Norman. ‘Judicial Authority in Imami Shiʿi Jurisprudence’, Bulletin of

    the British Society for Middle Eastern Studies, 6 (1979), pp. 104–108.

    Capra, Fritjof. The Web of Life. London, 1996.

    ___ The Hidden Connections. London, 2003.

    Chakrabarty, Dipesh. Habitations of Modernity. Chicago, 2002.

    Chambon, Laurent. Le Sel de la démocratie: l’accès des minorités au pouvoir politique en France et aux Pays-Bas. Amsterdam, 2002.
     
    Chevallier, Dominique, ed. Les Arabes et l’histoire créatrice. Paris, 1995.
     
    Çinar, Alev. Modernity, Islam, and Secularism in Turkey: Bodies, Places, and Time. Minneapolis, MN, 2005.

    Corbin, Henry. En Islam Iranien. Aspects spirituels et philosophiques. Paris, 1971–1972.

    ___ Cyclical Time and Ismaili Gnosis, tr. R. Mannheim and James W. Morris.London, 1983.

     
    Cortese, Delia. Ismaili and Other Arabic Manuscripts: A Descriptive Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Library of The Institute of Ismaili Studies. London, 2000.
     
    Cortese, Delia and Simonetta Calderini. Women and the Fatimids in the World of Islam. Edinburgh, 2006.

    Daftary, Farhad. The Ismaʿilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge, 1990;2nd ed., Cambridge, 2007.

    ___ The Assassin Legends: Myths of the Ismaʿilis. London, 1994.

    ___ ‘Hasan-i Sabbah and the Origins of the Nizari Ismaʿili Movement’, in F.Daftary, ed., Mediaeval Ismaʿili History and Thought. Cambridge, 1996, pp.181–204.

    ___ A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, 1998.

    ___ ‘The Ismaili Daʿwa outside the Fatimid Dawlainfo-icon’, in M. Barrucand, ed.,L’Égypte Fatimide, son art et son histoire. Paris, 1999, pp. 29–43.

    ___ Ismaili Literature: A Bibliography of Sources and Studies. London, 2004.

    ___ Ismailis in Medieval Muslim Societies. London, 2005.

    ___ ‘Religious Identity, Dissimulation and Assimilation: The Ismaili Experience’,in Yasir Suleiman, ed., Living Islamic History: Studies in Honour of Professor Carole Hillenbrand. Edinburgh, 2010, pp. 47–61.

    ___ ‘Shihab al-Din al-Husayni’, EI2, vol. 9, p. 435.

    ___ ‘Ṭayyibiyya’, EI2, vol. 10, pp. 403–404.

    ___ ‘Aga Khan’, in Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History, ed. Edward E.

    Curtis IV. New York, 2010, vol. 1, pp. 25–26.

    Daftary F. and Z. Hirji. The Ismailis: An Illustrated History. London, 2008.

    Daftary, F., E. Fernea and A. Nanji, ed. Living in Historic Cairo: Past and Present

    in an Islamic City. London, 2010.

    Dalton, Robert and Naznin Virji-Babul. ‘Expressions of Cultural Identity in

    the Drawings of Two Ismaili Muslim Children’, in T. Pelton, G. Reis and S.

    Stewart, ed., Connections. Victoria, BC, 2006, pp. 11–23.

    van Dam, Nicolaos. The Struggle for Power in Syria. London, 1996.

    de Smet, Daniel. ‘Comment déterminer le début et la fin du jeûne de Ramadan?Un point de discorde entre Sunnites et Ismaéliens en Égypte Fatimide’, in U. Vermeulen and D. de Smet, ed., Egypt and Syria in the Fatimid, Ayyubid and Mamluk Eras. Leuven, 1995, pp. 71–84.
     
    Derrida, Jacques. Writing and Difference, tr. Alan Bass. London, 2004.
     
    Dossa, Parin A. ‘Women’s Space and Time: An Anthropological Perspective on Ismaili Immigrant Women in Calgary and Vancouver’, Canadian Ethnic Studies, 20 (1988), pp. 45–65.

    ___ ‘Reconstruction of the Ethnographic Field Sites: Mediating Identities, Case Study of a Bohrainfo-icon Muslim Woman in Lamu (Kenya)’, Women’s Studies International Forum, 20 (1997), pp. 505–515.

    Douwes, Dick. ‘Tegenstellingen in noordwest Syrië in de periode 1840–1880(Controversies in Northwestern Syria, 1840–1880)’, Sharqiyyat, 2 (1989), pp.47–64.

    ___ ‘Knowledge and Oppression: The Nusayriyya in the Late Ottoman Period’,in La Shiʿa nell’impero ottomano. Rome, 1993, pp. 149–169.

    ___ The Ottomansinfo-icon in Syria: A History of Justice and Oppression. London, 2000.

    Douwes, Dick and Norman N. Lewis, ‘The Trials of Syrian Ismaʿilis in the First Decade of the 20th Century’, International Journal of Middle East Studies,21 (1989), pp. 215–232.

    Dumasia, Naoroji M. A Brief History of the Aga Khan. Bombay, 1903.

    ___ The Aga Khan and his Ancestors. Bombay, 1939.

    Elias, T. O. ‘The Evolution of Law and Government in Modern Africa’, in H.Kuper and L. Kuper, ed., African Law: Adaptation and Development.Berkeley, 1965, pp. 184–195.

    Emadi, Hafizullah. ‘Breaking the Shackles: Political Participation of Hazara Women in Afghanistan,’ Asian Journal of Women’s Studies, 6 (2000), pp.143–161.

    ___ ‘Nahzat-e Nawin: Modernization of the Badakhshan Ismaili Communities of Afghanistan,’ Central Asian Survey, 24 (2005), pp. 165–189.
     
    Encyclopaedia Iranica, ed. E. Yarshater. London and New York, 1982–.
     
    The Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. H. A. R. Gibb et al. 2nd ed., Leiden, 1960–2004.
     
    Engineer, Asghar Ali. The Muslim Communities of Gujarat. An Exploratory Study of Bohras, Khojas and Memons. Delhi, 1989.

    ___The Bohras. New Delhi, 1980; rev. ed., New Delhi, 1993.

    Enthoven, Reginald E. The Tribes and Castes of Bombay. Bombay, 1920–1922.

    Esack, Farid. On Being a Muslim: Finding a Religious Path in the World Today.

    Oxford, 1999.

    Esmail, Aziz. ‘Islam and Modernity: Intellectual Horizons’, in Azim Nanji, ed.,The Muslim Almanac. Detroit, MI, 1996, pp. 483–487.
     
    ___ The Poetics of Religious Experience: The Islamic Context. London, 1998.

    ___ ‘Introduction’, in F. Daftary, ed., Intellectual Traditions in Islam. London,

    2000, pp. 1–16.

    ___ A Scent of Sandalwood: Indo-Ismaili Religious Lyrics (Ginans): Volume I.

    Richmond, Surrey, 2002.

    Euben, Roxanne L. Enemy in the Mirror: Islamic Fundamentalism and the Limits

    of Modern Rationalism. Princeton, 1999.

    Fakhry, Majid. A History of Islamic Philosophy. 2nd ed., New York, 1983.

    Forbes, Alexander. Gujarat Ras-Mala: Hindoo Annals of the Province of Goozerat

    in Western India, ed. H. G. Rawlinson. London, 1924.

    Franke, Patrick. Begegnung mit Khidr: Quellenstudien zum Imaginären im Traditionellen Islam. Stuttgart, 2000.
     
    Friedmann, Yohannan. Prophecy Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and its Medieval Background. Berkeley, 1989.

    Frischauer, Willi. The Aga Khans. London, 1970.

    Frye, Richard N. The Heritage of Central Asia: From Antiquity to the Turkish Expansion. Princeton, 1997.
     
    Fulford, Robert. ‘A Postmodern Dominion: The Changing Nature of Canadian Citizenship’, in W. Kaplan, ed., Belonging: The Meaning and Future of Canadian Citizenship. Montreal, 1993, pp. 104–119.
     
    Fyzee, Asaf A. A. ‘A Chronological List of the Imams and Daʿis of the Mustaʿlian Ismailis’, Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, 10 (1934), pp. 8–16.

    ___ Outlines of Muhammadan Law. 3rd ed., London, 1964.

    ___ Cases in the Muhammadan Law of India and Pakistan. Oxford, 1965.

    ___ ‘The Study of the Literature of the Fatimid Daʿwa’, in George Makdisi, ed., Arabic and Islamic Studies in Honor of Hamilton A. R. Gibb. Leiden, 1965,pp. 232–249.

    ___ Compendium of Fatimid Law. Simla, 1969.

    Gardet, Louis. La cité Musulmane. Paris, 1954.

    Gaudefroy-Demombynes, Maurice. La Syrie à l’époque des Mamelouks, d’après les auteurs Arabes. Paris, 1923.
     
    Ghadially, Rehana. ‘Daudi Bohra Muslim Women and Modern Education: A Beginning’, Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 1 (1994), pp. 195–213.

    ___ ‘Women Observances in the Calendrical Rites of the Daudi Bohra Ismaili Sect of South Asian Muslims’, Islamic Culture, 77 (2003), pp. 1–21.

    Ghalib, Mustafa. Taʾrikh al-daʿwa al-Ismaʿiliyya. Damascus, 1953; 2nd ed.,Beirut, 1965.

    ___ The Ismailis of Syria. Beirut, 1970.

    Gilroy, Paul. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness.Cambridge, 1992.

    Gitlin, Todd. ‘Public Sphere or Public Sphericules?’, in Tamar Liebes and James Curran, ed., Media, Ritual, Identity. London, 1998, pp. 168–175.

    Gladney, Dru C. Dislocating China: Reflections on Muslims, Minorities and Other Subaltern Subjects. London, 2004.

    Gray, John. False Dawn: The Delusions of Global Capitalism. London, 2002.

    ___ Al Qaeda and What it Means to be Modern. London, 2003.

    Gregory, Robert G. India and East Africa: A History of Race Relations within the British Empire 1890–1939. Oxford, 1971.

    British Empire 1890–1939. Oxford, 1971.

    Grunebaum, Gustave E. von, ed. Unity and Variety in Muslim Civilization.Chicago, 1955.

    ___ , ed. Theology and Law in Islam. Wiesbaden, 1971.

    Gupta, Desh. ‘South Asians in East Africa: Achievements and Discrimination’,South Asia, 21 (1998), pp. 103–136.

    Habermas, Jürgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, tr. T. Burger. Cambridge, MA, 1991.

    Halm, Heinz. The Empire of the Mahdiinfo-icon: The Rise of the Fatimids, tr. M. Bonner.Leiden, 1996.

    ___ ‘The Ismaʿili Oath of Allegiance (ʿahd) and the “Sessions of Wisdom” (majalisinfo-icon
    al-hikmainfo-icon) in Fatimid Times’, in F. Daftary, ed., Mediaeval Ismaʿili History and Thought. Cambridge, 1996, pp. 91–115.
     
    ___ The Fatimids and their Traditions of Learning. London, 1997.

    ___ Die Kalifen von Kairo. Die Fatimiden in Ägypten 973–1074. Munich, 2003.

    Hardy, Peter. Muslims of British India. Cambridge, 1972.

    Hart, W. E., ed. Report of Cases Decided in the High Court of Bombay. Rajkot,1907.

    Hobsbawm, Eric and Terence Ranger, ed. The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge,1983.

    Hodgson, Marshall G. S. ‘The Ismaʿili State’, in The Cambridge History of Iran:Volume 5, The Saljuqinfo-icon and Mongol Periods, ed. John A. Boyle. Cambridge,1968, pp. 422–482.

    Hollister, John N. The Shiʿa of India. London, 1953.

    Holzwarth, Wolfgang. Die Ismailiten in Nordpakistan. Berlin, 1994.

    Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798–1939. London, 1962.

    Hughes, A. W. Gazetteer of the Province of Sindh. Karachi, 1876.

    Hughes, Thomas B. Memoirs on Sindh. Karachi, 1855.

    Hunsberger, Alice C. Nasir Khusraw, The Ruby of Badakhshan: A Portrait of the

    Persian Poet, Traveller and Philosopher. London, 2000.

    Hunzai, Faquir M. ‘A Living Branch of Islam: Ismailis of the Mountains of Hunza’, Oriente Moderno, NS, 84 (2004), pp. 147–160.

    Ibn al-Haytham, Abu ʿAbd Allah Jaʿfar b. Ahmad. Kitab al-munazarat, ed.and tr. W. Madelung and Paul E. Walker as The Advent of the Fatimids: A Contemporary Shiʿi Witness. London, 2000.
     
    Idris ʿImad al-Din b. al-Hasan. ʿUyun al-akhbar wa-funun al-athar; vol. 7, ed. Ayman Fuʾad Sayyidinfo-icon, with summary English trans. by Paul E. Walker and M. A. Pomerantz as The Fatimids and their Successors in Yaman: The History of an Islamic Community. London, 2002.
     
    Inayatullah, Sohail and Gail Boxwell, ed. Islam, Postmodernism and Other Futures: A Ziauddin Sardar Reader. London, 2003.
     
    Iskandarov, Bahadur I. Vostochnaya Bukharainfo-icon i Pamir v period presoedineniya Sredney Azii k Rosii. Stalinabad, 1960.

    Islam, Rafiqul. ‘The Bengali Language Movement and the Emergence of Bangladesh’, Contributions to Asian Studies, 11 (1978), pp. 142–152.

    Ivanow, Wladimir. ‘The Sect of Imam Shah in Gujarat’, Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, 12 (1936), pp. 19–70.

    Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series, 12 (1936), pp. 19–70.

    ___ Brief Survey of the Evolution of Ismailism. Leiden, 1952.

    ___ Ismaili Literature: A Bibliographical Survey. Tehran, 1963.

    Jamal, Arifinfo-icon A. ‘Principles in the Development of Ismaili Law’, Yearbook of Islamic and Middle Eastern Law, 7 (2002), pp. 115–126.
     
    Jani, Balvant. ‘The Devotional Element in the Nasihats of the Bohra Writings in Gujarat’, in A. W. Entwistle and F. Mallison, ed., Studies in South Asian Devotional Literature. Paris and New Delhi, 1988–1991, pp. 224–238.
     
    Juwayni, ʿAlaʾ al-Din ʿAta-Malik. Taʾrikh-i jahan-gusha, tr. John A. Boyle as The History of the World-Conqueror. Manchester and Cambridge, MA, 1958.
     
    Kaiser, Paul J. Culture, Transnationalism, and Civil Society: Aga Khan Social Service Initiatives in Tanzania. Westport, CT, 1996.

    Karamshoev, Dodikhudo. Olimoni Soveti dar borayi Pomir. Dushanbe, 1975.

    Karim, Karim H. ‘Relocating the Nexus of Citizenship, Heritage and Technology’,The Public: Journal of the European Institute for Communication and Culture, 4 (1997), pp. 75–86.

    ___ ‘Cyber-Utopia and the Myth of Paradise: Using Jacques Ellul’s Work on Propaganda to Analyze Information Society Rhetoric’, Information, Communication and Society, 4 (2001), pp. 1–22.
     
    ___ ‘Public Sphere and Public Sphericules: Civic Discourse in Ethnic Media’, in
    S. Ferguson and L. R. Shade, ed., Civic Discourse and Cultural Politics in Canada. Westport, CT, 2002, pp. 230–242.
     
    ___ ‘Crescent Dawn in the Great White North: Muslim Participation in the Canadian Public Sphere’, in Yvonne Haddad, ed., Muslims in the West: From Sojourners to Citizens. New York, 2002, pp. 262–277.
     
    ___ Islamic Peril: Media and Global Violence. Montreal, 2003.

    ___ ‘Nation and Diaspora: Rethinking Multiculturalism in a Transnational Context’, International Journal of Media and Cultural Politics, 2 (2006), pp.267–282.

    Kassam, Tazim R. Songs of Wisdom and Circles of Dance: Hymns of the Satpanth Ismaʿili Muslim Saint, Pirinfo-icon Shams. Albany, NY, 1995.
     
    ___ ‘The Aga Khan Development Network: An Ethic of Sustainable Development and Social Conscience’, in Richard C. Foltz et al., ed., Islam and Ecology: A Bestowed Trust. Cambridge, MA, 2003, pp. 477–496.
     
    ___ ‘Balancing Acts: Negotiating the Ethics of Scholarship and Identity’, in José Ignacio Cabezón and Sheila G. Daveney, ed., Identity and the Politics of Scholarship in the Study of Religion. New York, 2004, pp. 133–161.
     
    Keshavjee, Rafique H. Mysticism and the Plurality of Meaning: The Case of the Ismailis of Rural Iran. London, 1998.
     
    Ketelbey, C. D. M. A History of Modern Times. 5th ed., New Delhi, 1973.

    Khadur, Hisam. Lamsat naqdiyya li-shuʿaraʾ Salamiyya. Salamiyya, 2000.

    Khan, A. R. The All-India Muslim Educational Conference: Its Contribution to the Cultural Development of Indian Muslims 1886–1947. Oxford, 2001.
     
    Khan, Dominique-Sila. Conversions and Shifting Identities: Ramdev Pir and the Ismailis in Rajasthan. New Delhi, 1997.

    ___ ‘Diverting the Ganges: The Nizari Ismaili Model of Conversion in South Asia’, in R. Robinson and S. Clarkes, ed., Religious Conversions in India.Delhi, 2003, pp. 29–53.

    ___ Crossing the Threshold: Understanding Religious Identities in South Asia. London and New York, 2004.

    Khan, M. A. Muqtedar. American Muslims: Bridging Faith and Freedom.Beltsville, MD, 2002.

    Kharyukov, Leonid N. Anglo-Russkoe sopernichestvo v Tsentral’noy Azii i ismailizm. Moscow, 1995.

    ___ Istoriya Gorno-Badakhshanskoy Autonomnoy Oblasti. Dushanbe, 2006.

    King, Noel. ‘Toward a History of the Ismaʿilis in East Africa’, in I. R. al-Faruqi, ed., Essays in Islamic and Comparative Studies. Washington DC, 1982, pp.67–83.

    al-Kirmani, Hamid al-Din Ahmad. al-Masabih fi ithbat al-imamainfo-icon, ed. and tr. Paul E. Walker as Master of the Age: An Islamic Treatise on the Necessity of the Imamate. London, 2007.
     
    Klemm, Verena. Memoirs of a Mission: The Ismaili Scholar, Statesman and Poet al-Muʾayyad fi’l-Dininfo-icon al-Shirazi. London, 2003.

    Kohlberg, Etan. Belief and Law in Imami Shiʿism. Aldershot, 1991.

    Kusno, Abidin. Behind the Postcolonial: Architecture, Urban Space and Political Cultures in Indonesia. London, 2000.

    Lalu, Hashim. Islam ain sanatan. Ilahu nurinfo-icon ya ishvari jot. Hyerabad, 1926.

    Lelyveld, D. Aligarh’s First Generation: Muslim Solidarity in British India.Princeton, 1978.

    Lerner, Daniel. The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East.Glencoe, IL, 1958.

    Lewis, Bernard. The Assassins. London, 1967.

    Lewis, Norman N. ‘The Ismaʿilis of Syria Today’, Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, 39 (1952), pp. 69–77.

    ___ Nomads and Settlers in Syria and Jordan, 1800–1980. Cambridge, 1987.

    Lokhandwalla, Sh. T. ‘The Bohras, a Muslim Community of Gujarat’, Studia Islamica, 3 (1955), pp. 117–135.

    ___ ‘Islamic Law and Ismaili Communities (Khojas and Bohras)’, in Sh. T.Lokhandwalla, ed., India and Contemporary Islam: Proceedings of a Seminar. Simla, 1971, pp. 379–397.

    Lumbard, Joseph E. B, ed. Islam, Fundamentalism, and the Betrayal of Tradition: Essays by Western Muslim Scholars. Bloomington, IN, 2004.

    Lyotard, Jean François. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge, tr. G.Bennington and B. Massumi. Minneapolis, MN, 1984.

    Madelung, Wilferd. ‘Aspects of Ismaʿili Theology: The Prophetic Chain and the God Beyond Being’, in S. Hossein Nasr, ed., Ismaʿili Contributions to Islamic Culture. Tehran, 1977, pp. 51–65; reprinted in W. Madelung, Religious Schools and Sects in Medieval Islam. London, 1985, article XVII.

    ___ ‘Makramids’, EI2, vol. 6, pp. 191–192.

    al-Madjuʿ, Ismaʿil b. ʿAbd al-Rasulinfo-icon. Fahrasat al-kutub, ed. ʿAli N. Munzavi.Tehran, 1966.

    Malik, H. Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Muslim Modernization in India and Pakistan. New York, 1980.

    Mallison, Françoise. ‘Hinduism as Seen by the Nizari Ismaʿili Missionaries of Western India: The Evidence of the Ginan’, in Günther D. Sontheimer and H. Kulke, ed., Hinduism Reconsidered. New Delhi, 1989, pp. 93–103.

    ___ ‘Les chants Garabi de Pir Shams’, in F. Mallison, ed., Littératures médiévales de l’Inde du Nord. Paris, 1991, pp. 115–138.

    ___ ‘La secte Ismaélienne de Nizari ou Satpanthi en Inde. Hétérodoxie Hindoue

    ou Musulmane?’, in Serge Bouez, ed., Ascèse et renoncement en Inde ou la solitude bien-ordonnée. Paris,1992, pp. 105–113.

    Mangat, J. S. A History of the Asians in East Africa c.1886 to 1945. Oxford, 1969.

    Masov, R. M. et al., ed. Ocherki po istorii Sovetskogo Badakhshana. Dushanbe,1985.

    Masselos, James C. ‘The Khojas of Bombay: The Defining of Formal Membership Criteria during the Nineteenth Century’, in Imtiaz Ahmad, ed., Caste and Social Stratification among Muslims in India. New Delhi, 1973, pp. 1–20.Social Stratification among Muslims in India. New Delhi, 1973, pp. 1–20.

    Mayo, Katherine. Selections from Mother India, ed. M. Sinha. New Delhi, 1998.

    Menant, Dominique. ‘Les Bohoras du Guzarate’, Revue du Monde Musulman, 10(1910), pp. 465–493.

    ___ ‘Les Khodjas du Guzarate’, Revue du Monde Musulman, 12 (1910), pp.214–232, 406–424.

    Mernissi, Fatimainfo-icon. Women and Islam: An Historical and Theological Enquiry.Oxford, 1991.

    Metcalf, Barbara D. Islamic Revival in British India: Deoband, 1860–1900. Princeton, 1982.

    ___ ‘India’, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, ed. John L.Esposito. Oxford, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 188–195.

    Millward, James A. Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang. London, 2007.

    Mirza, Nasseh A. Syrian Ismailism. Richmond, Surrey, 1997.

    Misra, Satish C. Muslim Communities of Gujarat. Baroda, 1964.

    Moir, Zawahir. ‘Historical and Religious Debates amongst Indian Ismailis,1840–1920’, in Mariola Offredi, ed., The Banyan Tree: Essays on Early Literature in New Indo-Aryan Languages. New Delhi and Venice, 2000, vol.New Delhi and Venice, 2000, vol.1, pp. 131–153.

    Moosa, Ebrahim. ‘The Debts and Burdens of Critical Islam’, in Omid Safi, ed.,Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism. Oxford, 2003, pp.111–127.

    al-Muʾayyad fi’l-Din al-Shirazi, Abu Nasr Hibat Allah. al-Majalis al-Muʾayyadiyya,vols. 1–3, ed. Hatim Hamid al-Din. Bombay and Oxford, 1975–2005; vols. 1 and 3, ed. M. Ghalib. Beirut, 1974–1984.

    Muhammad ʿAli b. Mullainfo-icon Jivabhai. Mawsim-i bahar. Lithograph, Bombay, 1301–1311/1884–1893.

    Murison, William. Zanzibar Protectorate Law Reports, Volume 1 (1868–1919).London, 1919.

    al-Murtada, ʿAbd Allah. al-Falak al-dawwar fi samaʾ al-a’imma al-athar. Aleppo,1352/1933.

    al-Nabulsi, ʿAbd al-Ghani. al-Haqiqa wa’l-majaz fi’l-rihla ila bilad al-Shaminfo-icon wa-Misr wa’l-Hijazinfo-icon, ed. Ahmad A. Huraydi. Cairo, 1987.

    Nadwi, Abu Zafar. ‘Iqd al-jawahir fi ahwal al-Bawahir. Karachi, 1936.

    Nafi, Basheer M. ‘The Rise of Islamic Reformist Thought and its Challenge to Traditional Islam’, in Suha Taji-Farouki and Basheer M. Nafi, ed., Islamic Thought in the Twentieth Century. London, 2004, pp. 28–60.
     
    Nanji, Azim. ‘Modernization and Change in the Nizari Ismaili Community in East Africa – A Perspective’, Journal of Religion in Africa, 6 (1974), pp.123–139.

    ___ The Nizari Ismaʿili Tradition in the Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent. Delmar,NY, 1978.

    ___ ‘Ritual and Symbolic Aspects of Islam in African Contexts’, in Richard C.Martin, ed., Islam in Local Contexts. Leiden, 1982, pp. 102–109.

    ___ ‘The Nizari Ismaili Muslim Community in North America: Background and Development’, in Earle H. Waugh et al., ed., The Muslim Community in North America. Edmonton, AB, 1983, pp. 149–164.

    ___ ‘Shariʿat and Haqiqat: Continuity and Synthesis in the Nizari Ismaʿili Muslim Tradition’, in Katherine P. Ewing, ed., Shariʿat and Ambiguity in South Asian Islam. Berkeley, 1988, pp. 63–76.
     
    ___ ‘Aga Khan’, in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, ed. John L.Esposito. Oxford, 2009, vol. 1, pp. 63–65.

    Nanji, Azim and Z. Hirji. ‘Ismaʿilism. xvi. Modern Ismaʿili Communities’, EIR, vol.14, pp. 208–210.

    Nanji, Azim and S. Niyozov. ‘Silk Road: Crossroads and Encounters of Faiths’, in The Silk Road: Connecting Cultures, Creating Trust. Washington DC, 2002,pp. 37–43.

    Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Traditional Islam in the Modern World. London, 1987.

    ___ Ideals and Realities of Islam. New rev. ed., Cambridge, 2001.

    Needleman, Jacob, ed. The Sword of Gnosis: Metaphysics, Cosmology, Tradition, Symbolism. Baltimore, MD, 1974.
     
    al-Nuʿman b. Muhammad, al-Qadiinfo-icon Abu Hanifa. Daʿaʾim al-Islam, ed. Asaf A. A.Fyzee. Cairo, 1951–1961. English trans., A. A. A. Fyzee, completely revised by Ismail K. Poonawala, as The Pillars of Islam. New Delhi, 2002–2004.
     
    ___ Iftitah al-daʿwa, ed. W. al-Qadi. Beirut, 1970; ed. F. Dachraoui. Tunis, 1975.
    English trans., Founding the Fatimid State: The Rise of an Early Islamic Empire, tr. H. Haji. London, 2006.

    ___ Taʾwil al-daʿaʾim, ed. M. Hasan al-Aʿzami. Cairo, 1967–1972.

    Paz, Octavio. Convergences. New York, 1987.

    Peletz, Michael G. Islamic Modern: Religious Courts and Cultural Politics in Malaysia. Princeton, 2002.
     
    Penrad, Claude. ‘La presénce Ismaʿilienne en Afrique de l‘Est: note sur l’histoire commerciale et l’organisation communautaire’, in D. Lombard and J.Aubin, ed., Marchands et hommes d’affaires Asiatiques dans l’Océan Indien et la Mer de Chine 13e–20e siècles. Paris, 1988, pp. 221–236.
     
    Perry, Erskine. Cases Illustrative of Oriental Life: The Application of English Law in India. New Delhi, 1853; 2nd ed., New Delhi, 1988.

    Pirumshoev, H. S. and A. H. Dani. ‘The Pamirs, Badakhshan and the Trans-Pamir States’, in History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Volume V, Development in Contrast: From the Sixteenth to the Mid-nineteenth Century, ed. Ch. Adle et al. Paris, 2003, pp. 225–246.

    Poonawala, Ismail K. Biobibliography of Ismaʿili Literature. Malibu, CA, 1977.

    ___ ‘Al-Qadi al-Nuʿman and Ismaʿili Jurisprudence’, in F. Daftary, ed., Mediaeval Ismaʿili History and Thought. Cambridge, 1996, pp. 117–143.

    Ismaʿili History and Thought. Cambridge, 1996, pp. 117–143.

    ___ ‘Sulaymanisinfo-icon’, EI2, vol. 9, p. 829.

    Qorban, Shrin. Zhongguo Tajikliri (Tajiks in China). Urumqi, 1994.

    ___ Zhong guo Tajike shi liao hui bian (Historical Sources Concerning Tajiks of China). Xinjiang, 2003.

    Qudrat Allah Beg. Taʾrikh-i ʿahd ʿatiq-i riyasat-i Hunza. Baltit, 1980.

    Qutbuddin, Tahera. Al-Muʾayyad al-Shirazi and Fatimid Daʿwa Poetry: A Case of Commitment in Classical Arabic Literature. Leiden, 2005.

    Commitment in Classical Arabic Literature. Leiden, 2005.

    ___ ‘Arabic in India: A Survey and Classification of its Uses, Compared with Persian’, JAOS, 127, 3 (2007), pp. 315–338.

    Rahman, Fazlur. Islam and Modernity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition. Chicago, 1982.

    Rahman, Tariq. Language and Politics in Pakistan. Karachi, 1996.

    Ramadan, Tariq. Islam, the West and the Challenges of Modernity, tr. S. Amghar.Leicester, 2001.

    ___ Western Muslims and the Future of Islam. Oxford, 2004.

    Roberts, Richard and Kristin Mann. ‘Law in Colonial Africa’, in K. Mann and R. Roberts, ed., Law in Colonial Africa. London, 1991, pp. 1–48.

    Ross-Sheriff, Fariyal and A. Nanji. ‘Islamic Identity, Family and Community:The Case of the Nizari Ismaili Muslims’, in Earle H. Waugh et al., ed.,Muslim Families in North America. Edmonton, AB, 1991, pp. 101–117.

    Roy, Olivier. The New Central Asia: The Creation of Nations. New York, 2000.

    Roy, Shibani. The Dawoodi Bohras: An Anthropological Perspective. Delhi, 1984.

    Ruthven, Malise. Islam: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, 1997.

    ___ ‘Aga Khan III and the Ismaʿili Renaissance’, in Peter B. Clarke, ed., New Trends and Developments in the World of Islam. London, 1998, pp. 371–395.

    Safi, Omid, ed. Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism. Oxford,2003.

    Salaminfo-icon, Hayat, ed. Expressions of Islam in Buildings. Geneva, 1991.

    Salvadori, Cynthia. Through Open Doors: A View of Asian Cultures in Kenya.Nairobi, 1989.

    Sanders, Paula. ‘The Fatimid State, 969–1171’, in M. W. Daly, ed., The Cambridge History of Egypt: Volume 1, Islamic Egypt, 640–1517, ed. Carl F. Petry.

    History of Egypt: Volume 1, Islamic Egypt, 640–1517, ed. Carl F. Petry.Cambridge, 1998, pp. 151–174, 560–561.

    ___ ‘Bohra Architecture and the Restoration of Fatimid Culture’, in M.Barrucand, ed., LÉgypte Fatimide, son art et son histoire. Paris, 1999, pp.159–165.

    Sayyid, Ayman Fuʾad. al-Dawla al-Fatimiyyainfo-icon fi Misr. 2nd ed., Cairo, 2000.

    Scarcia Amoretti, Biancamaria. ‘Controcorrente? Il caso della communità Khogia di Zanzibar’, Oriente Moderno, NS, 14 (1995), pp. 153–170.

    Schimmel, Annemarie. Islam in the Indian Subcontinent. Leiden, 1980.
    ___ Islam: An Introduction. Albany, NY, 1992.

    Serjeant, Robert B. ‘The Fatimi-Tayyibi (Ismaili) Daʿwah: Ideologies and Community’, in Dominique Chevallier, ed., Les Arabes et l’histoire créatrice.Paris, 1995, pp. 59–77.

    Shackle, Christopher and Zawahir Moir. Ismaili Hymns from South Asia: An Introduction to the Ginans. London, 1992.

    Sharabi, Hisham. ‘Islam and Modernization in the Arab World’, in J. H.Thompson and R. D. Reischauer, ed., Modernization of the Arab World. Princeton, 1966, pp. 26–36.

    Sheriff, A. Slaves, Spices and Ivory in Zanzibar. 2nd ed., London, 1990.

    Sheriff, A. and E. Ferguson, ed. Zanzibar under Colonial Rule. London, 1991.

    Shihab al-Din Shah al-Husayni. Khitabat-i ʿaliya, ed. H. Ujaqi. Tehran, 1963.

    Shodan, Amrita. ‘Legal Formulation of the Question of Community: Defining the Khoja Collective’, Indian Social Science Review, 1 (1999), pp. 137–151.

    ___ A Question of Community: Religious Groups and Colonial Law. Calcutta, 2001.

    ___ ‘The Entanglement of the Ginans in Khoja Governance’, in Tazim R. Kassam and F. Mallison, ed., Ginans: Texts and Contexts. New Delhi, 2007, pp. 169–180.

    Singh, R. P. Education in an Imperial Colony. New Delhi, 1979.

    Smith, Wilfred C. Islam in Modern History. Princeton, 1957.

    Stern, Samuel M. ‘The Succession to the Fatimid Imam al-Amir, the Claims of the Later Fatimids to the Imamate, and the Rise of Tayyibi Ismailism’,Oriens, 4 (1951), pp. 193–255; reprinted in S. M. Stern, History and Culture in the Medieval Muslim World. London, 1984, article XI.

    Stowasser, Barbara F. Women in the Qurʾan: Traditions and Interpretation. NewYork, 1994.

    Tajddin Sadik Ali, Mumtaz Ali. Ismailis through History. Karachi, 1997.
    ___ 101 Ismaili Heroes. Karachi, 2003.
     
    Tamir, ‘Arif. ‘Furuʿ al-shajara al-Ismaʿiliyya al-Imamiyyainfo-icon’, al-Mashriq, 51 (1957), pp. 581–612.
    ___ Murajaʿat Ismaʿiliyya. Beirut, 1994.

    al-Tawilinfo-icon, Muhammad. Taʾrikh al-ʿAlawiyyin. Latakiya, 1924.

    Thorpe, C. L. Education and the Development of Muslim Nationalism in Pre-partition India. Karachi, 1965.

    Toorawa, Shawkat. ‘Tahir Sayf al-Din’, EI2, vol. 10, pp. 103–104.

    Turner, Bryan S. Orientalism, Postmodernism and Globalism. London, 1994.

    al-Tusi, Nasir al-Din Muhammad b. Muhammad. Rawda-yi taslim, ed. and tr.S. J. Badakhchani as Paradise of Submission: A Medieval Treatise on Ismaili Thought. London, 2005.
     
    Tyabjee, Husayn Badr al-Din. Why Mussalmans Should Oppose Pakistan.Bombay, 1946.
     
    al-ʿUtaybi Abu ʿAbd al-Malik Ahmad, Dahaqinat al-Yaman: Tahqiqat wa mutalaʿat fi milaff al-Ismaʿiliyya. Amman, 2002.
     
    Utvik, Bjorn O. ‘The Modernising Force of Islam’, in John L. Esposito and Francois Burgat, ed., Modernising Islam: Religion in the Public Sphere in the Middle East and Europe. London, 2003, pp. 43–67.
     
    van den Berg, Gabrielle R. Minstrel Poetry from the Pamir Mountains: A Study on the Songs and Poems of the Ismaʿilis of Tajik Badakhshan. Wiesbaden, 2004.

    Vassanji, M. G. The In-Between World of Vikram Lall. Scarborough, ON, 2003.

    Viswanathan, Gauri. Outside the Fold: Conversion, Modernity and Belief. NewYork, 1998.

    Wadud, Amina. Qurʾan and Women. Kuala Lumpur, 1994.

    Walker, Paul E. Abu Yaʿqub al-Sijistani: Intellectual Missionary. London, 1996.

    ___ ‘Fatimid Institutions of Learning’, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 34 (1997), pp. 179–200; reprinted in his Fatimid History, article I.
     
    ___ ‘The Ismaʿili Daʿwa and the Fatimid Caliphateinfo-icon’, in M. W. Daly, ed., The Cambridge History of Egypt: Volume 1, Islamic Egypt, 640–1517, ed. Carl F.Petry. Cambridge, 1998, pp. 120–150, 557–560.

    ___ Exploring an Islamic Empire: Fatimid History and its Sources. London, 2002.

    ___ Fatimid History and Ismaili Doctrine. Aldershot, 2008.

    ___ ‘Institute of Ismaili Studies’, EIR, vol. 13, pp. 164–166.

    Wasfi, Zakariya. ‘Salamiyya’, al-Insaniyya, 3 (1933), pp. 601–610, and 4 (1934),

    pp. 17–27.

    ___ Jawlat athariyya fi baʿd al-bilad al-Shamiyya. Damascus, 1934.

    Weber, Max. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, tr. A. M.Henderson and Talcott Parsons. New York, 1947.

    Weulersse, Jacque. Le pays des Alaouites. Tours, 1940.

    Willey, Peter. Eagle’s Nest: Ismaili Castles in Iran and Syria. London, 2005.

    Winter, Stefan. ‘The Nusayris before the Tanzimat in the Eyes of Ottoman Provincial Administrators, 1804–1834’, in T. Philipp and C. Schumann, ed.,From the Syrian Land to the States of Syria and Lebanon. Beirut, 2004, pp.97–112.

    Wright, Theodore P. ‘Muslim Kinship and Modernization: The Tyabji Clan of Bombay’, in Imtiaz Ahmad, ed., Family, Kinship and Marriage among Muslims in India. New Delhi, 1976, pp. 217–238.

    Zamiri, Atikem and Shrin Qorban. Tajik Adibiyati Tarihi (History of Tajik  Literature). Urumqi, 2005.
  • Dr. Farhad Daftary

    English
    Farhad Daftary completed his early and secondary education in Tehran, Rome, and London, before going to Washington, D.C., in 1958. He received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from the American University there, and then continued his graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley, leading to a Ph.D. degree in 1971. Subsequently, Dr. Daftary held different teaching posts, and, since 1988, he has been affiliated with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, London, where he is currently Co-Director and Head (since 1992) of the Department of Academic Research and Publications. An authority in Shi...Read more