Publication

  • الغزالي والإسماعيليون: نقاش حول العقل والسلطة في العصور الوسطى للإسلام

    سلسلة التراث الإسماعيلي 5: لندن: إ. ب. تورس بالتعاون مع معهد الدراسات الإسماعيلية، 2001، الصفحات: 21 +128.
    ISBN Paperback:
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    ISBN HardBack:
    1 86064 792 8
  • يمكن القول أن أبو حامد الغزالي (450/1058 هـ - 505/1111 م) واحد من أكثر المفكرين تأثيراً في تاريخ الفكر الإسلامي ولقد منحته الدراسة العلمية الحديثة نصيباً من الإهتمام أكثر من أي شخصية أخرى في العصور الوسطى الإسلامية. كجزء من مجموعاته الأربعين أو أكثر، كتب الغزالي عدداً من النصوص التي حاول من خلالها تفنيد المذهب الإسماعيلي. ’الفضيحة الباطنية‘ و’الفضائل المستظهرية‘هي أكثر كتبه تفصيلاً في هذا السياق. غالباً ما كان يشار إلى الكتاب الأخير بالكتاب المستظهري.


    كان الغرض من هذا العمل أن يحلل بشكل منهجي وأن يفكك عقيدة ’التعاليم الإسماعيلية‘، وهي ’التعليمات القيادية الإرشادية‘ لإمام الزمان، كما شرحها حسن الصباح ( المتوفي عام 518 هـ/ 1124 م) والذي كان رئيس مؤسسة الدعوة الإسماعيلية في بلاد فارس في ذلك الوقت. كُتب هذا العمل خلال المرحلة الأولى من أنشطة حسن الصباح، وتماماً قبل وفاة الإمام الخليفة المستنصر، في وقت ما بين شباط عام 1094 وتشرين الثاني عام 1095، حيث نظر الغزالي إلى اسماعيليي آلموت كامتداد للمنافسة السياسية الأكبر التي خاضها الفاطميون مع السلاجقة. وإنه لمن الواضح تماماً أن تهجم الغزالي الشديد كان موجهاً باتجاه الأنشطة والأفكار المرتبطة بتغلغل الإسماعيليين من آلموت داخل الإمبراطورية السلجوقية على الرغم من إشاراته المتعددة إلى الخليفة الفاطمي في مصر. ربما يكون الكتاب المستظهري آخر مؤلفاته قبل أزمته الشخصية ورحيله عن بغداد نهاية عام 1095حيث تحول بعدها لرحالة وحيد، عائداً بعد ما يقرب من أحد عشر عاماً إلى حياة مكرسة للمُثل الصوفية.


    يدور جوهر الكتاب المستظهري حول تساؤلات عن القوة والسلطة مما يضعنا بقدر كبير وجهاً لوجه مع أعمال الغزالي وأفكاره المضطربة. تكشف طريقة معالجته لهذه الأسئلة تماماً مدى التعقيد في التحديات التي تواجه مجتمعه عاكسة في الوقت نفسه المآزق التي عاشها هذا المفكر عندما وقع بين التزامات متناقضة.


    يوضح فاروق ميثا كيف يمكن للكتاب المستظهري أن يقدم مثالاً مفيداً لدراسة وفهم الأسئلة الرئيسية في الفكر الإسلامي في القرون الوسطى بوضع نص الغزالي ضمن تاريخ فكري وسياسي أوسع من الأفكار. يبحث المؤلف المواضيع الرئيسية للأطروحة المشروحة من قبل الغزالي ويكشف أسلوب نقاشاته من خلال تحليل نصي دقيق. إذا عومل الكتاب كمخزن للأفكار بما يتجاوز مجرد قيمة النص فإن كتاب ’الغزالي والإسماعيليون‘ يعيد تقييم الأهمية التاريخية للكتاب المستظهري وكذلك العوامل السياسية والفكرية التي شجعت الغزالي للدخول في مواجهة مع الإسماعيليين في الفترة الفاطمية وفترة آلموت المبكرة.

    يشكل نقاش الغزالي مع الإسماعيلين فصلاً مهماً في تاريخ الفكر الإسلامي. تقدم هذه الدراسة أبعاد جديدة لعمل الغزالي وللدور الهام والمؤثر للفكر الإسماعيلي في العصور الوسطى للإسلام من خلال دراسة الأبعاد المؤثرة لهذا الحدث من منظور سياسي وفكري واسع.

    سيشكل كتاب ’الغزالي والإسماعيلية‘ مصدراً قيماً للباحثين والطلاب في الدراسات الإسلامية والدراسات الدينية بصفة عامة، بالإضافة إلى المهتمين بالتاريخ الفكري والإجتماعي والسياسي للإسلام في القرن الخامس هجري /الحادي عشر ميلادي والقرن السادس هجري /الثاني عشر ميلادي.

  • Foreword


    Preface


    Acknoweldgements


    Chronology


    1. Ecology of the Kitab al-Mustazhiri: Historical Place and Time












     Al-Ghazali and the Saljuqs
     Al-Ghazali and the Abbasid Caliphateinfo-icon
     Al-Ghazali and the Ismailis

    2. Anatomy of the Kitab al-Mustazhiri: Content and Style





















     Al-Ghazali’s Muqaddima: A Justification
     Defining a Method
     The Adabinfo-icon al-Firaq Legacy: A Taxonomy of Exclusion
     The Place of Kalaminfo-icon: Reason and its Limits
     The Demands of Fiqhinfo-icon: Limits and Norms
     The Body Politic in Medieval Islam: Justification and Narcissism

    3. Towards a Re-reading of the Kitab al-Mustazhiri












     Orthodoxy: A Problem of Interpretation
     Reason: Subjectivity versus Objectivity
     Authority: Spiritual versus Temporal

    Notes


    Bibliography


    Index

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