• Early Sh‘i Thought: The Teachings of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir.

    Arzina R. Lalani, Early Shi‘i Thought: The Teachings of Imaminfo-icon Muhammad al-Baqir. London: I.B. Tauris in association with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2000, pp 256.

    ISBN Paperback:
    1 8503 592 8
    ISBN HardBack:
    1 86064 434 1
  • Using hitherto largely ignored Shi‘i sources, both in published as well as manuscript form, Dr. Arzina Lalani reveals in this study the pivotal contribution of the Imaminfo-icon Muhammad al–Baqir to the formative period of Islamic thought. The author analyses Imam al–Baqir's role in the development of early Shi‘i thought and evaluates his articulation of Shi‘i law and theology. This is the first work to focus primarily on al–Baqir’s decisive role in the exposition of key Shi‘i doctrines, especially the nature of the Imamatinfo-icon and the transmission of knowledge, together with the application of these doctrines in Muslim religious, theological, juridical and ethical domains.

    The teachings of Imam al–Baqir come from a period in history when discussion on religious doctrine was at the centre of the intellectual life of the Muslim community, including its political life; it had not yet become an academic preserve of professional theologians. The late 1st and early 2nd centuries of Islam were crucial times for the foundation of studies connected with the Qur’aninfo-icon. Much of the discussion took place in Medina, the centre of religious learning since the time of the Prophet, where al–Baqir resided.

    By the end of his lifetime, al–Baqir’s contribution had given the Shi‘ainfo-icon not only scholarly context for the articulation of their view of Imamat, but also laid the foundation of a distinctive school of jurisprudence, the madhhabinfo-icon ahl al–bayt, having well–defined views on several aspects of fiqhinfo-icon or jurisprudence.

    Al–Baqir’s time was a period of great intellectual ferment in Islamic thought where discussions and differences in the community focused on the issues of authority. Theological discussions also took place on topics such as iman, Islam and qada wa qadarinfo-icon. The various theological schools and religio–political movements of the time, such as the Khawarijinfo-icon, the Murji’a and the Qadariyyainfo-icon as well as the Shi‘i communities of Kaysaniyyainfo-icon and the Zaydiyyainfo-icon, endeavored in their own different ways to develop responses to these questions.

    The work shows how the concept of Imamat was articulated based on the Qur’an and Prophetic tradition. The emphasis on the hereditary nature of the Imamat proved timely and significant since many had come to believe by then that the institution was merely a political matter .

    The work also explores the Imam al–Baqir’s view that the Imam is also endowed with ‘ilminfo-icon, ‘true knowledge’. It was this approach that established the basis of Shi‘i law and theology that was to emerge in the years to come from the circle of his adherents and became crystallised in the time of his son, the Imam Ja’far al–Sadiq.

    Born in 57/677 in Medina, around the time when Mu’awiya was trying to secure the oath of allegiance for his son Yazid, Imam al–Baqir was also called Abu Ja’far after his oldest son. His full name was Muhammad b. Ali b. al–Husayn. However, he was popularly known by the laqab or epithet al–Baqir, short for baqir al–‘ilm meaning ‘one who splits knowledge open’ or ‘one who is bountiful in knowledge’. This laqab links him to a Shi‘i tradition traced back to the Prophet.

    More specifically, the function implied by the title al–Baqir is the one that the Imam did indeed perform. His capacity to ‘split open’ knowledge is readily apparent in the large number of traditions that have come down from al–Baqir in the various Shi‘i works of all persuasions, Zaydi, Ithna‘ashari and Ismaili, which forms the basis of the present work by Dr Arzina Lalani. The author has made an important contribution to the study of early Islam by demonstrating the role of Imam al–Baqir as one of the earliest and pre–eminent exponents of Shi‘i doctrines. From the prominence of his traditions in Shi‘i scholarly literature and the profoundly inspiring contributions they represent, we perceive a truly remarkable personality, one that deserves recognition as an outstanding figure in the history of the Shi‘a and a major force in the development of early Islamic thought in general.

  • Abbreviations

    The Banu Hashim and Early Shi‘i Imams

    1. Introduction
    2. The Idea of the Imamateinfo-icon Before al–Baqir
      Early Disputes about the Leadership of the Community
      Al–Husayn and Karbala
      The Aftermath of Karbala
      The Kaysaniyyainfo-icon
    3. Aspects of al–Baqir’s Life and Career
      Al–Baqir’s Laqab and Succession
      Al–Baqir’s Rivals
      Al–Baqir and Zayd
      Al–Baqir and the Ghulatinfo-icon
      The Controversy Over the Time of al–Baqir’s Death
    4. Al–Baqir’s Views on the Imamate
      The Qur’anic Basis of the Imamate
      The Hadithinfo-icon Basis of the Imamate
      The Theology of the Imamate
    5. Al–Baqir’s Views on Some Key Theological Issues
      Iman (Faith)
      Qada’ was Qadarinfo-icon
    6. Al–Baqir in Traditionalist Circles
      Non–Shi‘i Circles
      Transmitters of al–Baqir
      The Shi‘i Circle
      Shi‘i Associates of al–Baqir
    7. 6. Al–Baqir’s Contribution to Shi‘i Jurisprudence
      Some Legal Problems Common to the Various Shi‘i Groups
      Mash ‘ala al–khuffayn
      al–Jahr bi Bismillahinfo-icon
      The Adhan or the Call to the Ritual Prayer
      Salat al–Janaza





  • Primary Sources

    I. Manuscripts

    ‘Abbad b. Ya‘qub. Kitab al–asl. Danishgah–i Tehran Library, no. 962/ 2.

    ‘Abd Allah b. Yahya. Kitab al–asl. Danishgah–i Tehran Library, no. 962/ 11.

    ‘Abd al–Malik b. Hakim. Kitab al–asl. Danishgah–i Tehran Library, no 962/7.

    ‘Ali b. Asbat. Kitab al–nawadir. Danishgah–i Tehran Library, no. 962/ 13.

    ‘Ali b. Ja‘far b. Muhammad. al–Masa’il. Danishgah–i Tehran Library no. 506.

    ‘Asim b. Humayd. Kitab al–asl. Danishgah–i Tehran Library, no. 962/ 3

    al–Hasan b. Sa‘id. Kitab al–mu’minin. Danishgah–i Tehran Library, no, 775

    al–Hasan b. ‘Uthman. Kitab al–asl. Danishgah–i Tehran Library, no. 962/10.

    Ja‘far b. Muhammad b. Shurayh. Kitab al–asl. Danishgah–i Tehran Library, no. 962.

    Khallad b. Khalaf. Kitab al–asl. Danishgah–i Tehran Library, no. 962/ 9.

    Muhammad b. al–Muthanna. Kitab al–asl. Danishgah–i Tehran Library; no. 962/8.

    al–Muradi. Amali Ahmad b. ‘Isa. Arabo–Biblioteca, Ambrosiana, Milan, H. 135.

    al–Qadiinfo-icon al–Nu‘man. al–Manaqib wa al–mathalib. The Institute of Ismaili Studies Library, London, no. 544.

    Sharh al–akhbar. The Institute of Ismaili Studies Library, London, Ms. 186.

    Kitab al–idah (excerpts – personal copy of Wilferd Madelung), Tubingen.

    Salim b. ‘Amra. Kitab al–asl. Danishgah–i Tehran Library, no. 962/ 12.

    Zayd al–Zarrad. Kitab al–asl. Danishgah–i Tehran Library, no. 962/1.

    Zayd al–Narsi. Kitab al–asl. Danishgah–i Tehran Library, no. 962/32.

    2. General Islamic Works

    Abu al–Aswad al–Du’ali. Diwaninfo-icon, ed. Muhammad Hasan al–Yasin. Beirut, 1974,

    Abu Da’ud, Sulayman b. al Ash‘ath. Sunan Abu Da’ud, ed. M. ‘Abd al–Hamid, 4 vols. Cairo, 195o–1951.

    Abu al–Faraj al–Isfahani. Kitab al–aghani, 20 vols. Cairo, 1285/ 1868.

    Maqatil al–talibiyyin. Tehran, 1949.

    Abu Nu‘aym, Ahmad b. ‘Abd Allah al–Isfahani. Hilyat al–awliya’ 10 vols. Cairo, 1932–1938.

    al–Ash‘ari, Abu al–Hasan ‘Ali b. Isma‘il. Maqalat al–Islamiyyin, ed. H. Ritter. Istanbul, 1929–1930.

    al–Baghdadi, Abu Mansur ‘Abd al–Qahir. al–Farq bayn al–firaq, ed. al–Kawthari. Cairo, 1948.

    Kitab usul al–dininfo-icon. Istanbul, 1928.

    al–Baladhuri, Ahmad b. Yahya. Ansab al–ashraf, vol. 1, ed. M. Hamidullah. Cairo, 1960; vols 2 and 3 ed. Muhammad Baqir al–Mahmudi. Beirut, 1974; vol. 4 A–B., ed. M. Schloessinger, Jerusalem, 1938–1971; vol. 5, ed. S. D. F. Goitein, Jerusalem, 1936.

    Futuh al–buldan, tr. P. K. Hitti, Origins of the Islamic State. New York, 1916.

    al–Baqillani, Abu Bakr Muhammad. al–Tamhid fi radd ‘ald al–mulhida wa al–rafida wa al–Khawarijinfo-icon wa al–Mu‘tazila, ed. M. M. al–Khudayri and M. A. ‘Abd al–Rida, Cairo, 1947.

    al–Baydawi, ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Umar. Anwar al–tanzilinfo-icon wa asrar al–ta’wil, 2 vols, ed. H. O. Fleischer. Leipzig, 1846–1848.

    al–Bukhari, Muhammad b. Isma‘il. al Jami‘ al–sahih. Cairo, 1932.

    al–Ta’rikh al–kabir, 8 vols. Hyderabad, 1358–1362/1939–1943.

    al–Ta’rikh al–saghir. Lucknow, 1325/1907.

    al–Dhahabi, Shams al–Din Muhammad. al–‘Ibar fi khabar man ghabar, eds F. al–Sayyidinfo-icon and S. al–Munajjid. Kuwait, 1961.

    Mizan al–i‘tidal fi naqd al rijal, ed. ‘Ali Muhammad al–Bijawri. Cairo, 1963.

    al–Dinawari, Abu Hanifa Ahmad b. Da’ud. Kitab akhbar al–tiwal, eds ‘Abd al–Mun‘im ‘Amirinfo-icon and J. al–Shayyal. Cairo, 1960.

    al–Farazdaq. Diwan, ed. ‘Abd Allah Isma‘il al–Sawi. Cairo, 1936.

    al–Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad. Fada’ih al–Batiniyyainfo-icon, ed. ‘A. Baydawi. Cairo, 1964.

    al–Iqtisad fi al–i‘tiqad, eds A. Cubuku and H. Atay, Ankara, 1962.

    al–Hakim al–Nisaburi, Muhammad b. ‘Abd Allah. al–Madkhal ila ma‘rifat al–ikil tr. J. Robson, An Introduction to the Science of Tradition. London, 1953.

    Ma‘rifat ‘ulum al–hadithinfo-icon, ed. S. M. Hasan. Beirut, n.d.

    al–Mustadrak ‘ala al–sahihayn, 4 vols. Beirut, n.d.

    Ibn ‘Abd Rabbih, Ahmad b. Muhammad. al–‘Iqd al farid, ed. Ahmad Amin et al. Cairo, 1952–56.

    Ibn Abi al–Hadid. Sharh Nahj al–balagha, ed. M. A. Ibrahim, 20 vols. Cairo, 1959–1964.

    Ibn al–Athir, Abu al–Hasan ‘Ali b. Karim. al–Kamil fi al–ta’rich. Beirut, 1975

    al–Nihaya fi gharib al–hadith wa al–athar, 4 vols. Cairo, 1318/1900.

    Ibn Bakkar, Abu ‘Abd Allah al–Zubayr. Jamharat nasab Quraysh wa akhbariha, ed. M. M. Shakir. Cairo, 1381/1961.

    Ibn Hajar al–‘Asqalani, Ahmad b. ‘Ali. Lisan al–mizan. Hyderabad, 1329/1911.

    Tahdhib al–tahdhib.Hyderabad, 1325–1327/1907–1909.

    Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad b. Muhammad. al–Musnad, ed. A. M. Shakir. Cairo, 1949.

    Ibn Hazm, Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ‘Ali b. Ahmad. al–Fisal fi almilal wa al–ahwa’ wa al–nihal Cairo, 1347/1928.

    al–Ihkam fi usul al–ahkam Cairo, 1926–1928.

    Kitab al–muhalla. Cairo, 1351/1932.

    Ibn Hisham Abu Muhammad. Sirat Rasulinfo-icon Allah, ed. M. Saqqa et al. Cairo, 1936, tr. A Guillaume as The Life of Muhammad. Oxford, 1967.

    Ibn Kathir, ‘Imad al–Din, al–Bidaya wa al–nihaya. Beirut, 1966.

    Tafsir al–Qur’an al–‘azim. Cairo, 1971.

    Ibn Khaldun, ‘Abd al–Rahman. al–‘Ibar. Cairo, 1867.

    al–Muqaddima, tr. F. Rosenthal; abridged by N. J. Dawood, London, 1978.

    Ibn Khallikan, Ahmad b. Muhammad. Wafayat al–a ‘yan, ed. Ihsan ‘Abbas. Beirut, 1972; tr. MacGuckin de Slane, 4 vols. Paris, 1842–1871.

    Ibn Khayyat al–‘Usfuri, Khalifa. Ta’rikh Khalifa ibn Khayyat, ed. Suhayl Zakkar. Damascus, 1968.

    Kitab al–tabaqat, ed. A. D. al–‘Umar. Baghdad, 1967.

    Ibn Maja, Muhammad b. Yazid. al–Sunan, ed. M. F. ‘Abd al–Baqi. Cairo, 1952–1953

    Ibn Manzur, Abu al–Fadl Jamil al–Din. Lisan al–‘Arab, 20 vols. Cairo, 1300–1307/1882–1889.

    Ibn al–Nadim, Muhammad b. Ishaq. al–Fihrist. Cairo, 1348/1929.

    Ibn Qutayba, Muhammad b. ‘Abd Allah. ‘Uyuninfo-icon al–akhbar. Cairo, 1925–1930.

    Kitab al–ma‘arifinfo-icon. Cairo, 1300/1882.

    Ta’wil mukhtalif al–hadith. Cairo, 1326/1908.

    Ta’wil mushkil al–Qur’an, ed. A. Saqr. Cairo, 1954.

    Ibn Sa‘d, Muhammad. Kitab al–Tabaqat, ed. E. Sachau et al. Leiden, 1905–1940.

    Tabaqat al–kubra. Beirut, n.d.

    Tabaqat al–kubra. Leiden, 1965.

    Ibn al–Tiqtaqa, Muhammad b. ‘Ali. al–Fakhri fi al–adabinfo-icon al–sultaniyya. Cairo, 1921.

    al–Jahiz, Abu ‘Uthmin ‘Amr b. Bahr. al–Bayan wa al–tabyin, ed. A. M. Harun, 4 vols. Cairo, 1948–1950.

    Rasa’il al–Jahiz, ed. H. al–Sandubi. Cairo, 1933.

    al–Jassas, Ahmad b. ‘Ali. Ahkam al–Qur’an, 3 vols. Cairo, 1928.

    al–Jawhari, Abu Nasr Isma‘il. Taj al–lugha, 2 vols. Cairo, 1292/1875.

    al–Juwayni, ‘Abd al–Malik. Kitab al–irshad ila qawati‘ al–adilla fi usul al–i‘tiqadat, ed. M. Y. Musa and ‘Ali A. ‘Abd al–Hamid. Cairo, 1950.

    al–Khatib al–Baghdadi, Ahmad b. ‘Ali. al–Kifaya fi ‘ilminfo-icon al–riwaya, ed. Muhammad ‘Abd al–Halim and Hasan ‘Abd al–Rahman. Cairo, 1972.

    Sharaf ashab al–hadith, ed. M. S. Hatibuglu. Ankara, 1971.

    Khatib al–Tabrizi, Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad. Mishkat al–masabih, ed. M. Nasir al–Din al–Albani. Beirut, 1961.

    al–Khayyat, ‘Abd al–Rahim. Kitab al–intisar, ed. Nyberg. Beirut, 1957.

    al–Kumayt. al–Hashimiyyat, ed. al–Saydawi. Cairo, 1950.

    Die Hashimijjat, ed. Josef Horovitz. Leiden, 1907.

    Malik b. Anas. al–Muwatta’, ed. ‘Abd al–Wahhib ‘Abd al–Latif. 2nd ed., Cairo, 1967.

    al–Maqrizi, Ahmad b. ‘Ali. al–Niza’ wa al–takhasum bayn Bani Umayya wa Bani Hashim. Najaf, 1368/1948.

    al–Mas‘udi, ‘Ali b. Husayn. Muruj al–dhahab, ed. M. M. ‘Abd al–Hamid. 4th ed., Cairo, 1964.

    Kitab al–tanbih wa al–ishraf. Leiden, 1894.

    al–Mubarrad, Muhammad b. Yazid. Kitab al–kamil. Cairo, n.d.

    al–Mufaddal b. Muhammad. al–Mufaddaliyyat, ed. C. J. Lyall. Oxford, 1921.

    Murtada al–Zabidi, Abu al–Fayd Muhammad. Taj al–‘arus, 10 vols. Cairo, 1285–1307/1868–1889.

    Muslim b. al–Hajjaj. Sahih Muslim, ed. H. M. al–Mas‘udi, 8 vols. Cairo, 1349/1930.

    al–Nasa’i, Ahmad b. Shu‘ayb. Sunan al–Nasa’i, ed. H. M. al–Masu‘di, 8 vols. Cairo, 1930.

    al–Nawawi, Abu Zakariyya Muhyi al–Din. Tahdhib al–asma’ wa al–lughat, 2 vols. Cairo, n.d.

    al–Qadi ‘Abd al Jabbar. al–Mughni. Cairo, n.d.

    al–Qalqashandi, Abu al–Abbas. Subh al–a‘sha, 14 vols. Cairo, 1919– 1922.

    al–Qurtubi, Muhammad b. Ahmad. al Jami‘ li ahkam al–Qur’an. Cairo, 1967.

    al–Safadi, Khalil b. Aybak. al–Wafi bi al–wafayat. Cairo, n.d.

    al–Sam‘ani ‘Abd al–Karim. Kitab al–ansab. Leiden, 1912.

    al–San‘ani, ‘Abd al–Razzaq b. Hammam. al–Musannaf, ed. H. R. al–A‘zami, 11 vols. Beirut, 1970–1972.

    al–Shaf‘i, Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad b. Idris. Kitab al–umm, 7 vols. Cairo, 1325/1907.

    al–Musnad, ed. M. Z. al–Kawthari. Cairo, 1951.

    al–Risala, ed. A. M. Shakir. Cairo, 1938.

    al–Shahrastani, Abu al–Fath Muhammad b. ‘Abd al–Karim. Kitab al–milal wa al–nihal, ed. W. Cureton, London, 1846; tr. A. K Kazi and J. G. Flynn, Muslim Sects and Divisions, London, 1984.

    al–Suyuti, Jalal al–Din. Asbab al–nuzul. Cairo, 1382/1962.

    al–Durr al–manthur fi al–tafsir bi al–ma’thur, 6 vols. Beirut, n.d.

    al–Itqan fi ‘ulum al–Qur’an, 2 vols, ed. M. A. Ibrahim. Cairo, 1967.

    Ta’rikh al–khulafa’, tr. H. S. Janet. Calcutta, 1881

    . al–Tabari, Abu Ja‘far Muhammad b. Jarir. Jami‘ al–bayan fi tafsir al–Qur’an, ed. Muhammad al–Zuhri al–Ghamrawi. Cairo, 1321/1903 .

    Ta’rikh al–rusul wa al–muluk,10 vols. 2nd ed., Cairo, 1967–1969.

    Annales, ed. M. J. de Goeje et al. Leiden, 1879–1901.

    al–Mukhtasar min kitab al–dhayl al–mudhayya. Cairo, 1929.

    al–Thaqafi, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim. al–Gharat, ed. Jalal al–Din al–Muhaddith. Tehran, 1395/ 1975.

    al–Tirmidhi, Abu ‘Isa. al–Jami‘ al–sahih. Cairo, 1292/1875 and Cairo, 1962–1968.

    al–Waqidi, Muhammad b. ‘Umar. Kitab al–maghazi, ed. M. Jones, 3 vols. London, 1966.

    al–Ya‘qubi, Ahmad b. Ibn Wadih. Ta’rich, vols 1 and 2. Beirut, n.d.

    al–Zamakhshari. al–Kashshaf, 4 vols. Cairo, 1354/ 1935.

    al–Fa’iq fi gharib al–hadith, eds ‘Ali M. al–Bajali and Muhammad Abu al–Fadl Ibrahim, 3 vols. Cairo, 1945–1948.

    3. Shi‘i Sources

    ‘Ali b. al–Walid. Taj al–‘aqa’id, ed. ‘Arif Tamir. Beirut, 1967.

    Abu Firas, Shihab al–Din. al–Shafiyya (attr.), ed. and tr. with intro. and commentary by S. N. Makarem. Beirut, 1966.

    Abu al–Fawaris, Ahmad b. Ya‘qub. al–Risala fi al–imamainfo-icon, ed. and tr. by S. N. Makarem. Delmar, NewYork, 1977.

    al–Barqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad. Kitab al–mahasin. Tehran, 1370/ 1950. – Kitab al–rijal. Tehran, 1342/1923.

    al–Ha’iri, Muhammad b. Isma‘il. Muntaha al–maqal, Tehran, 1302/1884.

    al–Hilli, Hasan b. Yusuf. al–Babinfo-icon al–hadi ‘ashar, tr. W. M. Miller. London, 1928.

    Kashf al–murad fi tajrid al–i‘tiqad. Mashhad, n.d.

    Kashf al–yaqin fi fada’il amir al–mu’minin. Tehran, 1880.

    Rijal, ed. Muhammad Sadiq. Najaf, 1961.

    Ibn Abi al–Hadid. Sharh nahj al–balagha, ed. M. A. Ibrahim. Cairo, 1959

    Ibn A‘tham, Ahmad al–Kufi. Kitab al futuh, 8 vols. Hyderabad, 1395/ 1975.

    Ibn Babawayhi al–Qummi, Abu Ja‘far. Ilal al–shara’i‘. Najaf, 1963.

    Man la yahduruhu al–faqihinfo-icon, 4 vols. Tehran, 1390/1970.

    al–Tawhidinfo-icon, Tehran, 1387/1967.

    Ibn Dawud, al–Hasan b. ‘Ali al–Hilli. Kitab al–rija;. Tehran, 1964.

    Ibn Hibat Allah, Diya’ al–Din. Mizaj al–tasnim, ed. R. Strothmann. Gottingen, 1844/1948.

    Ibn Shahrashub, Muhammad b. ‘Ali. Ma‘alim al–‘ulamainfo-icon’. Tehran, 1353/1934.

    Manaqib Al Abi Talib. Najaf, 1956.

    Ibn Zahra, Hatim b. ‘Imran. Risalat al–‘usul wa al–ahkam, ed.‘Arif Tamir in Khams rasa’il Isma‘iliyya. Salamiyyainfo-icon, 1956.

    Idris ‘Imad al–Din b. al–Hasan. ‘Uyun al–akhbar, ed. M. Ghalib, vol. 4. Beirut, 1973.

    Zahr al–ma‘ani, ed. M. Ghalib, Beirut, 1991.

    al–Irbili ‘Ali b. ‘Isa. Kashf al–ghumma fi ma‘rifat al–a’imaminfo-icon, 2 vols, Tabriz, Qumm, 1381/1961; 3 vols, Najaf, 1965.

    Ja‘far b. Mansur al–Yaman, Abu al–Qasim. Asrar al–nutaqa’ wa sara’ir al–nutaqa’, ed. M. Ghalib. Beirut, 1984.

    Kitab al–kashf, ed. R Strothmann. London, 1952.

    al–Kashshi, Muhammad b. ‘Umar. lkhtiyar ma‘rifat al–rijal, abridged by M. b. al–Hasan al–Tusi. Mashhad, 1348/ 1969.

    al–Kirmani, Hamid al–Din Ahmad. al–Masabih fi ithbat al–imama, ed. M. Ghalib. Beirut, 1969.

    Rahat al–‘aqlinfo-icon, ed. M. Ghalib. Beirut, 1967; ed. M. K. Husayn and M. M. Hilmi. Cairo, 1952.

    al–Kulayni, Muhammad b. Ya‘qub. al–Usul min al–kafi. Tehran, 1388/1968.

    al–Furu’ min al–kafi. Tehran, l890.

    al–Rawda, min al–kafi Tehran, n.d.

    al–Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir. Bihar al–anwar. Tehran, 1376/1956.

    al–Mu’ayyad fi al–Din al–Shirazi. Diwan al–Mu’ayyad fi al–Din, ed. M. K Husayn. Cairo, 1949.

    Sirat al–Mu’ayyad fi al–Din, ed. M. K Husayn, Cairo, 1949; summarised partial translation by J. Muscati and A. M. Moulvi, Life and Lectures of al–Mu’ayyad, Karachi, 1950.

    al–Mufid, Muhammad b. al–Nu‘man. Kitab al–irshad, Najaf,1392/1972; tr. I. K A. Howard, The Book of Guidance, London, 1981.

    al–Muqni‘a fi al fiqhinfo-icon. Qumm, 1966.

    Tashih i‘tiqadat al–Imamiyyainfo-icon. Tabriz, 1371/1951

    al–Najashi, Ahmad b. ‘Ali b. Kitab al–rijal. Tehran, n.d.

    al–Nawbakhti, al–Hasan b. Musa. Firaq al–Shi‘a, ed. H. Ritter. Istanbul, 1931.

    al–Nisaburi, Ahmad b. Ibrahim. Istitar al–imam, tr. W. Ivanow, in Ismaili Tradition Concerning the Rise of the Fatimidsinfo-icon. London, 1942.

    al–Qadi al–Nu‘man, Abu Hanifa. Asasinfo-icon al–ta’wil ed. ‘Arif Tamir. Beirut, 1960.

    Da‘a’im al–Islam, ed. A. A. A. Fyzee, 2 vols. Cairo, 1950 and 1960.

    Ikhtilaf usul al–madhahib, ed. M. Ghalib, Beirut, 1973.

    Kitab al–himma fi adab atba‘ al–a’imam, ed. M. K. Husayn. Cairo, n.d.

    Ta’wil al–da‘a’im, ed. M. H. A‘zami. Cairo, 1967–1972.

    Muntakhabat Isma‘iliyya; partial edition, ed. ‘Adil al–‘Awwa, – al–Urjuza al–mukhtara, ed. I. K. Poonawala. Montreal, 1970.

    Sharh al–akhbar fi fada’il al–a’imma al–athar, ed. Muhammad al–Husayni al–Jalali, 3 vols. Qumm, 1409–12/1988–92.

    al–Qummi, ‘Ali b. Ibrahim. al–Tafsir, 2 vols. Najaf, 1386/1966.

    al–Rizi, Abu Hatim. Kitab al–zina (section on Muslim sects], ed. ‘Abd Allah S. al–Samarra’i, al–Ghuluww wa al–firaq al–ghaliyya fi al–hadarat al–Islamiyya. Baghdad, 1972.

    Sharifinfo-icon al–Murtada, Abu al–Qasim. Kitab al–intisar. Najaf, 1971.

    al–Shafi‘i fi al–imama. Tehran, 1301/1883.

    al–Fusul al–mukhtara min al–‘uyun wa al–mahasin li al–Mufid. Najaf, 1966.

    al–Sijistani, Abu Ya‘qub. Ithbat al–nubuwwainfo-icon, ed. ‘Arif Tamir. Beirut, 1966.

    Kashf al–mahjub, ed. H. Corbin. Tehran and Paris, 1949.

    Kitab al–yanabi, ed. and tr. by H. Corbin in Trilogie Ismaélienne, Tehran and Paris, 1961.

    al–Tibrisi, Abu ‘Ali al–Fadl. I‘lam al–wara’ bi a‘lam al–huda. Tehran, 1379/1959.

    Majmu‘ al–bayan fi tafsir al–Qur’an. Tehran, 1395/1975.

    al–Tibrisi, Abu Mansur Ahmad. al–Ihtijaj, ed. S. M. Baqir al–Khirsan, 2 vols. Beirut, 1966.

    al–Tusi, Muhammad b. al–Hasan. al–Amali, 2 vols. Najaf, 1383/ 1963.

    al–Fihrist, ed. Sprenger. Calcutta, 1853 and Mashhad, 1972.

    al–Istibsar, 4 vols. Tehran, 1390/1970.

    Kitab al–rijal. Najaf, 1381/1961.

    Tahdhib al–ahkam, 10 vols. Tehran, 1390/1970.

    Tafsir al–tibyan, 10 vols. Najaf, 1957.

    Secondary Sources

    Abbot, Nabia. Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri. Chicago, 1957–1972.

    al–Amin, Muhsin b. ‘Abd al–Karim. A‘yan al–Shi‘a. Damascus, 1935–61.

    al–Amini, Hasan. Islamic Shi‘i Encyclopaedia, vols 1–4. Beirut, n.d.

    al–Amini, Muhammad Hadi. ‘Id al–Ghadir. Najaf, 1962.

    Amir–Moezzi, M. A. The Divine Guide in Early Shi‘ism, tr. David Streight. Albany, N. Y., 1994.

    Arendonk, C. van. Les débuts de l’Imamatinfo-icon Zaidite au Yémen. Leiden, l960.

    Ayoub, Mahmoud. Redemptive Suffering in Islam, A Study of the Devotional Aspects of ‘Ashurd’ in Twelver Shi‘ism. The Hague, 1978.

    Bosworth, Clifford E. The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh, 1996.

    Brockelmann, Carl. Geschichte den arabischen Litteratur, 2nd ed., Leiden, 1943–1949; three suppl. vols, Leiden, 1937–1942.

    Calder, Norman. ‘The Structure of Authority in Imami Shi‘i Jurisprudence’. PhD thesis, School of Oriental and African Studies, Univ. of London, l980.

    Cambridge History of Islam, ed. P. M. Holt et al., 2 vols. Cambridge, 1970.

    Corbin, Henry. ‘Rituel Sabéen et exégèse Ismaélienne du ritual’, Eranos–Jahrbuch, 19 (1950), pp. 181–246.

    History of Islamic Philosophy, tr. Liadain and Philip Sherrard. London, 1996.

    Cyclical Time and Ismaili Gnosis. London, 1983.

    Coulson, Noel J. A History of Islamic Law. Edinburgh, 1964.

    Conflicts and Tensions in Islamic Jurisprudence. Chicago, 1969.

    Succession in the Muslim Family. Cambridge, 1971.

    Crone, Patricia and Hinds, Martin. God’s Caliphinfo-icon: Religious Authority in the First Centuries of Islam. Cambridge, 1986.

    Dabashi, Hamid. Authority in Islam. New Jersey, 1989.

    Daftary, Farhad. The Isma‘ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge, 1990.

    – ed., Mediaeval Isma‘ili History and Thought. Cambridge, 1996.

    A Short History of the Ismailis. Edinburgh, 1998.

    Daiber, Hans. ‘Abu Hatim ar–Razi (10th Century AD) on the Unity and Diversity in Religions’, in Dialogue and Syncretism: an Interdisciplinary Approach, ed. J. Gort, et al. Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1988, pp. 87–104.

    Donaldson, Dwight M. The Shi’ite Religion. London, 1933.

    Eliash, Joseph. ‘The Ithna‘ashari–Shi‘i Juristic Theory of Political and Legal Authority’. Studia Islamica, 29, 1969, pp. 17–30

    – ‘The Shi‘i Qur’an’. Arabica, 16, 1969, pp. 15–24.

    – ‘On the Genesis and Development of the Twelver–Shi‘i Three Tenet Shahadah’. Der Islam, 47, 1971, pp. 265–72.

    The Encyclopaedia of Islam. Leiden, 1913–1938.

    The Encyclopaedia of Islam. 2nd ed. Leiden, 1954 –

    Ezzati, Abolfazl. An Introduction to Shi‘i Islamic Law and Jurisprudence. Lahore, 1976.

    Friedlaender, Israel. ‘The Heterodoxies of the Shiites in the Presentation of Ibn Hazm’. JAOS, 28, 1907, pp. 1–80; 29, 1908, pp. 1–183.

    Fyzee, A. A. A. ‘Bequests to Heirs: Isma‘ili Shi‘a Law’. JBBRAS, 5, 1929, pp. 141–5; and Bombay Law Reporter, Journal, 1929, pp. 84–7.

    Compendium of Fatimid Law. Simla, 1969.

    – ‘Isma‘ili Law and its Founder’. Ismaili Culture, 1935, pp. 107–12.

    – ‘Nu‘man’. EI, vol. 6, pp. 953–4.

    – ‘Qadi an–Nu‘man: The Fatimid Jurist and Author’. JRAS, 1934, pp. 1–32

    – ‘The Study of the Literature of the Fatimid da‘wa’, in Arabic and Islamic Studies in Honor of H. A. R Gibb, ed. G. Makdisi, Leiden, 1965, pp. 232–49.

    Ghalib, Mustafa. ‘A‘lam al–Isma‘liyya. Beirut, 1964.

    Gibb, H. A. R. Studies on the Civilization of Islam, ed. Stanford J. Shaw and William R. Polk. London, 1962.

    Goldziher, Ignaz. Mohammad and Islam, tr. Kate Seelye, New Haven, 1917.

    Muslim Studies., vol. II, tr. C. R. Barber and S. M. Stem. London, 1971.

    Gotteheil, Richard. ‘A Distinguished Family of Fatimid Qadis in the Tenth Century’. JAOS, 27, 1907, pp. 217–96.

    Guillaume, Alfred. The Traditions of Islam: An Introduction to the Study of Hadith Literature. Beirut, 1966.

    The Life of Muhammad, a Translation of Ibn Ishaq’s Sirat Rasul Allah

    al–Hafiz, ‘Abd al–Rahman. ‘The Life of al–Zuhri and his Scholarship in hadith and sunnainfo-icon’. Ph.D. thesis, University of Edinburgh, 1977.

    Halm, Heinz. ‘Zur Datierung des isma‘ilitischen ‘Buches der Zwischenzeiten und der zehn Konjunktionen’ (Kitab al–fatarat wa’l–qiranat al–‘asara) HS Tubingen Ma VI 297’, in Die Welt des Orients, 8 (1975) pp. 91–107.

    Hamdani, Husayn F. ‘A Compendium of Isma‘ili Esoterics’. Islamic Culture, 2, 1937, pp. 210–20.

    – ‘Some Unknown Ima‘ili Authors and Their Works’. JRAS,1933, pp. 210–27.

    Hodgson, Marshall. The Venture of Islam, 3 vols. Chicago, 1974.

    – ‘How Did the Early Shi‘a become Sectarian?’. JAOS, 75, 1955, pp. 1–13.

    Hollister, John N. The Shi‘a of India. London,1953.

    Howard, I. K.A. ‘Imami Shi‘i Ritual in the Context of Early Islamic Jurisprudence’. PhD thesis, Cambridge,1975.

    – ‘Mut‘a Marriage Reconsidered in the Context of the Formal Procedures for Islamic Marriage’. JSS, 20, 1975, pp. 82–92.

    – ‘The Development of the adhan and iqama of the salat in Early Islam’. JSS, 26, 1981, pp. 219–28.

    Ivanow, Wladimir. A Guide to Ismaili Literature. London, 1933.

    – ‘Early Shi‘i Movements’. JBBRAS, 16, 1941, pp. 1–23.

    Ismaili Literature: A Bibliographical Survey. Tehran, 1963.

    Ismaili Tradition Concerning the Rise of the Fatimids. London, 1942.

    The Alleged Founder of Ismailism. Bombay, 1946.

    Jafri, S. Husain M. Origins and Early Development of Shi‘a Islam. Beirut, 1979

    Jeffery, A. Materials for the History of the Text of the Qur’an. Leiden, 1937.

    Kohlberg, Etan. ‘Some Notes on the Imami Attitude to the Qur’an’, in Islamic Philosophy and the Classical Tradition: Essays Presented to R Walzer, eds S. M. Stern, A. Hourani and Y. Brown. Oxford, 1972, pp. 209–24

    – ‘Some Imami–Shi‘i Views on taqiyyainfo-icon’. JAOS, 95, 1975, pp. 395–402.

    – ‘An Unusual Shi‘i isnad’. IOS, 5, 1975, pp. 142–9.

    – ‘From Imamiyya to Ithna–‘ashariyya’. BSOAS, 39, 1976, pp. 521–34

    – ‘The Development of the Imami Shi‘i Doctrine of Jihadinfo-icon’ Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morganlandischen Gesselschaft,126,1976, pp 64–86.

    – ‘The Term ‘Rafida’ in Imami Shi‘i Usage’. JOAS, 99, 1980, pp. 677–9.

    Belief and Law in Imami Shi‘ism. Great Britain, 1991.

    Lalani, Arzina. ‘The Role of Imam Muhammad al–Baqir in Early Islam’. PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh, 1988.

    Laoust, Henri. Le schismes dans l’Islam. Paris, 1965.

    Lewis, Bernard. The Arabs in History. Hutchinson’s University Library, 1950. – The Origins of Isma‘ilism. Cambridge, 1940.

    – ‘An Isma‘ili Interpretation of the Fall of Adam’. BSOAS, 9 (1938), pp. 691–704.

    Linant de Bellefonds, Yvon. ‘Le Droit Imamite’, in Le Shi‘isme lmamite, Colloque de Strasbourg 1968, Paris, 1970, pp. 183–99.

    MacDermott, Martin J. The Theology of al–Shaikh al–Mufid. Beirut, 1978.

    MacDonald, D. B. Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory. New York, 1903

    – ‘Qadariyyainfo-icon’. EI, vol. 4, pp. 605–6.

    – ‘Qada’. EI, vol. 4, pp 603–4.

    – ‘Qadarinfo-icon’. EI, vol. 4, p. 6o5.

    Madelung, Wilferd ‘Das Imamat in der fruhen ‘ismailitischen Lehre’. Der Islam 37, 1961, pp. 43–135

    – ‘Imamism and Mu‘tazilite Theology’, in Le Shi‘isme Imamite. Paris, 1970, pp. 13–30.

    Der Imam al–Qasim ibn Ibrahim and die Glaubenslehre der Zaiditen. Berlin, 1965.

    Religious Schools and Sects in Medieval Islam. London, 1985.

    Religious Trends in Early Islamic Iran. Albany. N. Y., 1988.

    The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphateinfo-icon. Cambridge, 1997.

    – ‘Imama’. EI2, vol. 3, pp. 1163–9.

    – ‘Isma‘iliyya’. E12, vol. 4, pp. 198–2o6.

    – ‘Djabir al Ju‘fi’. E12, Supplement, pp. 232–3.

    – ‘Kaysaniyyainfo-icon’. E12, vol. 4, pp.836–8.

    – ‘Kuraybiyya’. E12, vol. 5, pp. 433–4

    – ‘al–Baqer, Abu Ja‘far Mohammad’. EIR, vol. 3, pp. 725–6.

    – ‘Shi‘a’. E12, vol. 9, pp. 420–4.

    – ‘The Sources of Isma‘ili Law’. JNES, 35, 1976, pp. 29–40.

    Majdu‘, Isma‘il b. ‘Abd al–Rasul. Fihrist al–Majdu‘, ed. ‘Alinaqi Munzavi, Tehran, 1966.

    Makarem, Sami Nasib. ‘al–Amr al–ilahi wa mafhumuhu fi‘l–‘aqida al–Isma‘iliyya’. al–Abhath, 20, 1967.

    The Doctrine of the Isma‘ilis. Beirut, 1972.

    – ‘The Philosophical Significance of the Imam in Isma‘ilism’. Studia Islamica, 27, 1967.

    Momen, Moojan. An Introduction to Shi‘i Islam. New Haven, 1985.

    al–Muzaffar, Muhammad Rida. The Faith of Shi‘a Islam. Qumm, 1982.

    Nanji, Azim. ‘An Isma‘ili Theory of Walayah in the Da‘a’im al–Islam of Qadi al–Nu‘man’, in Essays on Islamic Civilization Presented to Niyazi Berkes, ed. D. P. Little. Leiden, 1976, pp. 260–73

    Petersen, E. L. Ali and Mu‘awiya in Early Arabic Tradition. Copenhagen, 1964.

    Poonawala, I. K ‘al–Qadi al–Nu‘man’s Works and the Sources’. BSOAS, 36, 1973, pp. 109–15.

    – ‘A Reconsideration of al–Qadi al–Nu‘man’s Madhhabinfo-icon’. BSOAS, 37, 1974, pp. 572–79

    – ‘Al–Sijistani and his Kitab al–Maqalid’, in Essays on Islamic Civilization Presented to Niyazi Berkes, ed. D. P. Little, Leiden, 1976 pp. 274–83. – Biobibliography of Isma‘ili Literature. Malibu, California, 1977.

    al–Qadi, Wadad. al–Kaysaniyya fi ta’rikh wa al–adab. Beirut, 1974.

    Rajkowski, W. ‘Early Shi‘ism in ‘Iraq’. PhD thesis, University of London, 1955.

    Rubin, U. ‘Pre–existence and Light, Aspects of the Concept of Nor Muhammad’. Israel Oriental Studies, 5, Jerusalem, Tel Aviv University, 1975, pp. 62–119. – ‘Prophets and Progenitors in Early Shi‘a Tradition’. JSAI, I, 1979.

    Sachedina, Abdulaziz A. Islamic Messianism: the Idea of the Mahdiinfo-icon in Twelver Shi‘ism Albany, 1981.

    Salisbury, Edward E. ‘Translation of an Unpublished Arabic Risala’ by Khaled ibn Zeid al–Ju‘fy with Notes’. JAOS, vol. 3, 1851–53, pp.167–93.

    – ‘Translation of Two Unpublished Arabic Documents Relating to the Doctrines of the Isma‘ilis and other Batinian Sects’. JAOS, vol. 2, 1850–51, pp. 257–324.

    al–Samarra’i, ‘Abd Allah Salum. al–Ghuluww wa al–firaq al–ghaliyya fi al–hadarat al–islamiyya. Baghdad, 1972.

    Schacht, Joseph. Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. Oxford, 1953.

    An Introduction to Islamic Law. Oxford, 1979.

    Sezgin, Fuat. Geschichte de Arabischen Schriftums. Leiden, 1967.

    Sharon, M. Black Banners from the East. Jerusalem, 1983.

    Stern, S. M. ‘Abu Hatim al–Razi’. E12, vol. 1, p. 125.

    – ‘Abu Ya‘qub al–Sidjzi’. EI2, vol. 1, p. 160.

    Studies in Early Isma‘ilism. Jerusalem–Leiden,1983.

    Strothmann, Rudolf. Die Zwolfer–Schi‘a. Leipzig, 1926.

    Gnosis–Texte der Ismailiten. Gottingen, 1943

    – ‘Takiyya’. EI, vol. 4, pp. 628–9.

    – ‘Shi‘a’. EI, vol. 4, pp. 350–8.

    – ‘Shi‘a’. Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam, pp. 534–41.

    – ‘Kleinere Ismailitische Schriften’, in Islamic Research Association, Miscellany, vol. 1, 1949.

    – ‘Recht der Ismailiien’. Der Islam, 42, 1954, pp. 131–46.

    Tabataba’i, ‘Allamah S. M. Hasan. Shi‘ite Islam. Tr. and ed. by S. H. Nasr, London, 1975.

    Tamir, ‘Arif. ‘Furu‘ al–shajarah al–Isma‘iliyya’. al–Mashriq 1958, 51, pp. 581–612.

    al–Imama fi al–Islam. Baghdad, n.d.

    Tucker, William F. ‘Abu Mansur al–‘Ijli and the Mansuriyya: a Study in Medieval Terrorism’. Der Islam, 54/1, 1977, pp. 66–76.

    – ‘Bayan b. Sam‘an and the Bayaniyya: ‘Shi‘i Extremists of Umayyad ‘Iraq’. MW, 65/4,1975 pp. 241–53

    – ‘Rebels and Gnostics: al–Mugira Ibn Sa‘id and the Mugiriyya’. Arabica, 22. 1975, 33–47.

    Tyan, E. ‘Djihad’, E12, vol. 2, pp. 538–9.

    Veccia Vaglieri, L. ‘ ‘Ali’. E12, vol. 1, pp. 381–6.

    – ‘Fadak’. E12, vol. 2, pp. 725–7

    – ‘Fatimainfo-icon’. E12, vol. 2, pp. 841–50.

    – ‘Ghadir Khumminfo-icon’. E12, vol. 2, pp. 993–4

    Watt, W. M. The Formative Period of Islamic Thought. Edinburgh, 1973.

    Islamic Philosophy and Theology. Edinburgh, 1979

    Islamic Political Thought. Edinburgh, 1980.

    – ‘The Muslim Yearning for a Saviour: Aspects of Early ‘Abbasid Shi‘ism’. The Saviour God, ed. S. G. F. Brandon, Oxford, 1963.

    – ‘The Political Attitudes of the Mu‘tazilah’. JRAS, 1963, pp. 38–57.

    – ‘Shi‘ism under the Umayyadsinfo-icon’. JRAS, 1960, pp. 158–72.

    Wellhausen, Julius. The Arab Kingdom and its Fall, tr. Margaret G. Weir, Calcutta, 1927.

    The Religio–Political Factions in Early Islam, ed. R. C. Ostle and S. M. Walzer, Amsterdam, 1975

    Wensinck, A. J. Concordance et indicies de la tradition musulmane, 7 vols. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1936–1969.

    A Handbook of Early Muhammadan Tradition. Leiden, 1960.

    – ‘Murji’a’. El, vol. 6, pp. 734–5.

    – ‘Nabidh’. SEI, p. 428.

    – ‘Kunut’. SEI, pp. 271–2.