A historic city in Iran to the south of Tehran. It is considered by many Shi‘i Muslims as Iran’s second holiest city after Mashhad. Qum is a leading centre of Twelver Shia learning in Iran, which contains major institutions for the training of students and is home of leading schools and libraries. Following the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979, Qum’s importance has grown enormously. Qum’s fame as a pilgrimage site, visited by millions from Iran and abroad, is mainly due to the shrine of Fatima (popularly known as Hazrat-i Ma‘suma), daughter of the 7th Imam of the Twelver Shia, Musa b. Ja‘far al-Kazim, and sister of the 8th Imam of the Twelver Shia, Ali Reza, whose shrine is in Mashhad.