Publication

  • Franchir le seuil : Comprendre les Identités Religieuses en Asie du Sud

    Londres: I.B. Tauris en association avec l’ ; Institut des Études Ismaili, 2005. pp. 185.

    ISBN HardBack:
    1 85043 435 2 (HB)
  • Basée sur un champ de recherche originale et sur le travail de divers scientifiques, cette parution cherche à explorer l’importante question des identités religieuses en Asie du Sud, avec une référence particulière à l’Inde du Nord. La perception actuelle de l’Islam et de l’Hindouisme en tant que deux blocs monolithiques, a ses racines dans un long et complexe processus durant lequel les identités étaient continuellement modelées et remodelées. Même la période contemporaine est loin d’être un reflet d’une vision simpliste de deux perpétuels antagonistes et religions rivales en Asie du Sud.

    L’auteur suggère qu’afin de comprendre la complexité de ce phénomène, chacun doit, avant tout, explorer les voies dans lesquelles les catégories de Hindous et de Musulmans ont émergé dans le contexte de l’Inde médiévale. Durant cette période, les identités étaient reliées à la prédominance des castes (jati), des sectes (panth) et des traditions régionales. Les mots Hindou >, et Turc > ou Musulman > qui commencèrent à apparaître comme des couples opposés dans la littérature dévotionnelle avaient un sens différent à celui qui leur est attribué aujourd’hui.

    En se basant sur ses recherches, focalisées sur l’Inde du Nord, l’auteur démontre la fluidité extrême dans ces catégories, incluant l’existence de plusieurs identités intermédiaires qui peuvent être intitulées  liminales >. Il a été généralement supposé que cela résulte d’un syncrétisme populaire spontané, ou des maints échanges fructueux qui prirent place entre les Musulmans mystiques et les Hindous ascètes. Si le rôle du Soufisme sunnite dans l’interaction entre les divers mouvements religieux locaux n’avait pas été largement étudié, l’impact de l’Islam ismaili n’aurait pu être examiné à ce jour. Ainsi, ces études ont permis d’explorer davantage plusieurs idées dominantes. 

    En examinant les différents modes d’interaction entre les traditions religieuses Hindou et Musulman, il devient clair qu’un seul phénomène n’est pas responsable de ce que les savants ont appelé les mouvements ou tendances synchronisateurs >. Alors que partager du temps et des espaces sacrés peut être considéré comme un phénomène naturel ou spontané, cela n’implique pas une réclamation ouverte de transfert d’identité. Le caractère apparent de la dualité entre Hindou et Musulman de certains mouvements sectaires, de leurs fondateurs et lieux saints, mérite une analyse distincte et nous oblige à réviser certaines recherches précédemment admises dans ce domaine.

    Due à la persécution, contraints à adopter une attitude religieuse dissimulatrice (taqiyyainfo-icon), les communautés Ismaili Nizari de l’Inde, comme d’autres minorités persécutées, illustre un exemple où les identités ‘liminales’ ont continué dans le temps et où les individus sont devenus des gardiens des frontières > entre les communautés. Alors que cela a été possible dans le passé, lorsque des identités incisifs n’avaient pas encore émergé, la position privilégiée de ces communautés a été mise en danger par la formation graduelle des orthodoxes. Ce phénomène est lié à la formation et la consolidation des états durant la dernière partie de l’autorité Mogol.

    Plus tard, les activités de catégorisation organisées par le pouvoir colonial, ainsi que les mouvements réformistes et revivalistes qui ont apparus au dix-neuvième siècle, ont aboutis à la création d’identités bien distinctes et des blocs d’antagonistes, qui en retour ont laissés dérivés les conflits. La formation de deux états séparés, l’Inde et le Pakistan, a accéléré ce processus. La plupart des gens ont été contraints de rejoindre l’un des deux blocs >, franchissant ainsi le seuil qui a, durant des siècles, assuré la continuité des échanges et la fluidité des identités. La coexistence pacifique et la tolérance qui a essentiellement découlé de cette fluidité, tout aussi bien que de la diversité des traditions religieuses, a été remplacé par des conflits croissants.

    En se tournant vers la période contemporaine, l’auteur argumente que la persistance des pratiques religieuses partagées ou liminales en Asie du Sud tend à contredire le courant de pensée actuelle de l’Islam >et de l’Hindouisme comme des traditions fondamentalement opposées. Une résistance ouverte au défi du communalisme et aux nouvelles formes de dissimulation empreintes de précaution, prépare la voie des transformations futures.

  • Préface
    Note sur la transcription et la translittération

    Introduction

    1. Qui est Hindou, qui est Musulman?
    Une brève enquête historique

    2. ‘Il n’y a pas de Hindou, il n’y a pas de Musulman’:
    Debout sur le seuil

    3. Créer l’Orthodoxie

    4. Nation et Religion (1920-2000)

    Conclusion: La Métaphore du Pirinfo-icon caché

    Notes
    Glossaire
    Bibliographie
    Index

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