Fortress of Girdkuh














Fortress of GirdkuhFortress of Girdkuh

One of the chief Ismaili strongholds in Persia, the fortress of Girdkuh, situated near Damghan, is built upon a conical peak in the Alburz mountain range. Controlling the main east-west trade route to Mashhad, the castle was surrounded by a triple ring of forts making its position seemingly impregnable. Nizari leaders, including Hasan Sabbah (d. 518/1124), often sent their families to Girdkuh for refuge. Girdkuh was the last Nizari stronghold in Persia to surrender to the Mongols, holding out against a Mongol siege for 17 years.


Timeline



  • Girdkuh was acquired in 491/1098 through the efforts of Ra’is Mu’ayyad al-Dininfo-icon Muzaffar, originally an officer in Saljuqinfo-icon service who had been secretly converted to Ismailism.
  • In Rabi‘ I 651/May 1253, Hülegü appeared at the head of some 5,000 men at the foot of Girdkuh, where he erected walls and other siege works around the stronghold.
  • Girdkuh remained the last Nizari outpost in Persia. Its garrison finally yielded from want of provisions in 669/1270. It was later placed, with Lamasar, under the supervision of Mongol commanders and units.

Fortress of Girdkuh



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Fortress of Girdkuh



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