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Dr Alí-de-Unzaga's paper was entitled ‘“It appeared so unto them”: Ta’wil, the Torah and the Gospel in Ismaili Works (with special attention to the Epistles of the Pure Brethren- Rasa’il Ikhwan al-Safa’)’ and was part of a panel on Philosophy and Science. The paper focused on the use and interpretation of citations from the Torah, the Psalms, the Gospels in the Rasa’il Ikhwan al-Safa’. Even though the Ismaili character of the work is disputable, it is clear that the approach to, and use of, biblical material by the Ikhwan al-Safa’ bears close proximity to that of Ismaili authors, including those of Ja‘far b. Mansur al-Yaman, Abu Hatim al-Razi, and Hamid al-Din al-Kirmani. A comparison between the Rasa’il and those authors highlights a number of parallels which were explored in Dr. Ali-de-Unzaga’s paper: they had Biblical texts at their direct disposal; even though they saw the cycles of Judaism and Christianity as superseded by Islam, not only did they permit the study of the previous scriptures but also encouraged it; they saw the issue of the “falsification” of the scriptures mostly on the level of interpretation; they applied the same hermeneutical vision (which we can call ‘ta’wil’ for lack of a better term) to the Qur’an and the previous scriptures; they interpreted the Qur’an as accepting the physical crucifixion of Jesus while maintaining the immortality of the soul; finally, the interpretations were framed in the context of the Ismaili da’wa from the 10th century onwards.