Internal Appearance and Layout

Written for literary and practical purposes of transmission and preservation, the Khojkiinfo-icon manuscripts generally have a simple and basic appearance. Khojki manuscripts very rarely have space between texts and lines. For the most part, folios in the earlier khata type are crowded with text, margins are rare and there are very few illustrations or beautifications. Later pothis increasingly include geometrical or floral designs, characteristic of other Islamic manuscripts, placed between the text. The only significant drawings are talismanic in nature (fal namas), consisting of ta‘wiz (amulets), predictions and drawings, for example, Dhu’lfiqar, the legendary two pronged sword of Imaminfo-icon ‘Ali.


Watch video of Allah ToharTexts typically begin with an invocation to Allah. Examples include the Sindhi Allah Tohar (‘with the help of Allah’) and/or the basmalla, prominent in many Islamic texts: Bismillahinfo-icon-ir-Rahman-irl-Rahim (‘In the name of God the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful’).



Watch video of Bismillah-ir-Rahman-irl-RahimAs with the beginnings of the texts, the close of manuscripts is also characterised by a common formula. In many cases, a basic colophon is included, either in Sindhi or Gujarati, stating the name of the scribe and, in some cases, the date of transcription. In the colophon, copyists often convey their greetings and offer their prayers for the readers and their families with the Persian phrase Khanavadan. Most manuscripts are the product of two or more copyists and thus a single manuscript may contain examples of several different hands.


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