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  • انديشه‌های نخستين شيعی: تعاليم امام محمد باقر

     لندن: آی. ‌بی. ‌توريس با همکاری مؤسسه‌ی مطالعات اسماعيلی،‌ ۲۰۰۰، ۲۵۶ ص.

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    دکتر ارزينا لالانی با استفاده از منابع چاپی و نسخ خطی که تا به حال ناشناخته بوده‌اند،‌ در اين اثر نقش محوری امام محمد باقر را در دوره‌ی شکل‌گيری انديشه‌ی اسلامی آشکار می‌کند. نويسنده نقش امام محمد باقر را در بسط و توسعه‌ی انديشه‌های نخستين شيعی تحليل می‌کند و تبيين او از کلام و فقه شيعه را ارزيابی می‌نمايد. اين کتاب نخستين اثری است که محور عمده‌ی تمرکز در آن نقش قاطع امام باقر در تبيين عقايد کليدی شيعه و بالاخص مفهوم امامت و انتقال دانش و معرفت در کنار کاربرد اين عقايد در حوزه‌های دينی،‌ کلامی، فقهی و اخلاقی مسلمين است.

    تعاليم امام باقر متعلق به دوره‌ای از تاريخ است که بحث در خصوص عقايد دينی قلب زندگی عقلانی و حيات سياسی جامعه‌ی مسلمين بود؛‌ در آن دوره اين بحث‌ها هنوز به حوزه‌ی مناظرات علمی متکلمين متخصص تبديل نشده بود. اواخر قرن اول و اوايل قرن دوم اسلام دوره‌هايی مهم و سرنوشت‌ساز در مطالعات مربوط به قرآن هستند. اکثر اين مباحثات در مکه رخ می‌داد که مرکز فراگيری دينی از زمان پيامبر و اقامت‌گاه امام باقر بود.

    فعاليت‌های امام باقر،‌ تا آخر حياتش، نه تنها بستر محققانه‌‌ای را برای تبيين ديدگاه امامت برای شيعيان فراهم نمود،‌ بلکه زیر بنای يک مکتب متمايز فقهی، مذهب اهل‌البيت،‌ را نيز فراهم آورد که ديدگاه‌های مختلفی را در بسياری از جوانب فقه به خوبی تعريف می‌نمود.

    دوره‌ی امام باقر عصر شور و هيجان فراوان عقلانی در انديشه‌ی اسلامی بود و مناظرات و اختلاف‌ نظرها در جامعه متمرکز بر موضوع حاکميت و مرجعيت بود. مباحثات کلامی نيز در زمينه‌ی موضوعاتی از قبيل ايمان،‌ اسلام و قضا و قدر رخ می‌داد. مکاتب مختلف کلامی و جنبش‌های سياسی-دينی زمان مانند خوارج و مرجئه و قدريه و همچنين جوامع شيعی کيسانيه و زيديه هر يک به شيوه‌ی خويش تلاش داشتند تا پاسخ‌هايی درخور برای اين سؤالات پيدا کنند.

    اين اثر نشان می‌دهد که چگونه مفهوم امامت بر اساس قرآن و سنت پيامبر تبيين شده است. تأکيد بر ماهيت وراثتی امامت بسيار به موقع و مهم بود از آن‌جايی که افراد زيادی در آن زمان به اين باور رسيده بودند که اين نهاد تنها مسأله‌ای سياسی است.

    اين اثر همچنين اين ديدگاه امام باقر را مورد کاوش قرار می‌دهد که امام دارای «علم» است. اين رويکرد بود که سنگ‌بنای حقوق و کلام شيعی گرديد که در سال‌های آتی از حلقه‌ی پيروان او صادر شد و در زمان پسر امام جعفر صادق تبلور يافت.

    امام باقر که که ابوجعفر نيز ناميده می‌شد،‌ در سال ۵۷/۶۷۷ در مدينه تقريباً در زمانی متولد شد که معاويه در تلاش بود تا برای پسرش يزيد بيعت بستاند. نام کامل امام باقر محمد بن علی بن حسين بود. اما، شهرت وی به همان لقب باقر بود که خلاصه‌ی باقرالعلوم يعنی «شکافنده‌ی دانش» يا «صاحب دانش فراوان». اين لقب او را به سنتی شيعی متصل می‌کند که تا زمان پيامبر به عقب باز می‌گردد.

    به طور خاص‌تر، کارکردی که لقب باقر متضمن بود،‌ کاری بود که عملاً امام انجام می‌داد. توانايی او در شکافتن دانش به وضوخ در بسياری از احاديث به جای مانده از امام باقر در کثيری از آثار شيعی نحله‌های مختلف زيدی، اثنی‌عشری و اسماعيلی مشهود است که زير بنای اثر حاضر دکتر ارزينا لالانی است. مؤلف با نشان دادن نقش امام باقر به عنوان يکی از متأخرترين و برجسته‌ترين شارحان عقايد شيعی،‌ سهمی مهم در مطالعه‌ی اسلامِ دوره‌های نخست دارد. با توجه با برجستگی سنت وی در ادبيات عالمانه‌ی شيعی و مشارکت‌های عميقاً‌ الهام‌بخش آن‌ها، ما با شخصيتی واقعاً چشم‌گير روبرو هستيم که سزاوار توجه به عنوان يک چهره‌ی ممتاز در تاريخ شيعه و نيرويی عمده در توسعه‌ی انديشه‌‌های نخستين مسلمين به طور کلی است.

  • Abbreviations

    The Banu Hashim and Early Shi‘i Imams

    1. Introduction
    2. The Idea of the Imamateinfo-icon Before al–Baqir
      Early Disputes about the Leadership of the Community
      Al–Husayn and Karbala
      The Aftermath of Karbala
      The Kaysaniyyainfo-icon
    3. Aspects of al–Baqir’s Life and Career
      Al–Baqir’s Laqab and Succession
      Al–Baqir’s Rivals
      Al–Baqir and Zayd
      Al–Baqir and the Ghulatinfo-icon
      The Controversy Over the Time of al–Baqir’s Death
    4. Al–Baqir’s Views on the Imamate
      The Qur’anic Basis of the Imamate
      The Hadithinfo-icon Basis of the Imamate
      The Theology of the Imamate
    5. Al–Baqir’s Views on Some Key Theological Issues
      Iman (Faith)
      Taqiyyainfo-icon
      Qada’ was Qadarinfo-icon
      Tawhidinfo-icon
    6. Al–Baqir in Traditionalist Circles
      Non–Shi‘i Circles
      Transmitters of al–Baqir
      The Shi‘i Circle
      Shi‘i Associates of al–Baqir
    7. 6. Al–Baqir’s Contribution to Shi‘i Jurisprudence
      Some Legal Problems Common to the Various Shi‘i Groups
      Mash ‘ala al–khuffayn
      Nabidh
      al–Jahr bi Bismillahinfo-icon
      The Adhan or the Call to the Ritual Prayer
      Qunnut
      Salat al–Janaza

    Epilogue

    Notes

    Bibliography

    Index

    !––>

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