• Until the middle of the 20th century, the Ismailis were studied and judged almost exclusively on the basis of evidence collected or fabricated by their detractors. As a result, a variety of myths and legends circulated widely, both in Muslim societies and in the West, regarding the teachings and practices of the Ismailis. The breakthrough in Ismaili studies came with the recovery and study of numerous genuine Ismaili texts that had been preserved in private collections in India, Central Asia, Syria, Yaman and other regions. Many of these texts have been edited, translated and published since the 1950s, thus contributing to the impressive progress in modern Ismaili scholarship.

    This book deals with aspects of Ismaili history and thought in medieval times. The opening chapter of the book focuses on the formative period of Islam in terms of communities of interpretation that later acquired Shi‘i and Sunni designations. It describes how different Muslim groups, in a fluid and dynamic setting, addressed the issues then confronting the nascent Islamic ummainfo-icon and formulated a diversity of views as well as interpretations of the Islamic message. The next three chapters relate to the early and Fatimid ps of Ismaili history. After dealing with the opening decades of Ismailism and the da‘wainfo-icon activities during the 9th century, the author explains the complex issues resulting in the cessation of the Qarmatisinfo-icon from the Ismaili community. Another chapter is devoted in this part to the organization and functioning of the Ismaili da‘wa under the Fatimidsinfo-icon. The interesting point that emerges from the author’s analysis here relates to the success of the Ismaili da‘wa outside the boundaries of the Fatimid state, especially in the Yemen, Iran and Central Asia, even though the Ismailis were often persecuted in those regions by contrast to the Fatimid domains where they enjoyed the protection of the state. The final chapter of this part takes up the life and career of Sayyida Arwa or Hurra, the Sulayhid queen of the Yemen who upheld the cause of the Fatimids in South Arabia. This remarkable queen, who rose to the highest rank of the hujjainfo-icon in the Ismaili da‘wa organisation, was responsible for ensuring the continuation of the Musta‘lian form of Ismailism in the Yemen and for securing the original success of that branch of Ismailism in Gujarat, in western India.

    The second part of the book concentrates on the Nizari branch of Ismailism. Hasan-i Sabbah established the independent Nizari state in Iran, centred at the mountainous fortress of Alamutinfo-icon in 1090 CE. This state survived until the Mongols destroyed it in 1256 CE. Hasan and his successors at Alamut struggled against the Saljuqinfo-icon Turks, whose alien rule was detested by Iranians of all social classes. Inspite of their much superior military power, the Saljuqs failed to dislodge the Nizarisinfo-icon from their fortresses. The Nizaris established a historiographical tradition recording the events of their state according to different reigns of lords of Alamut. This tradition is the subject of the first chapter of this second part. In the second chapter, the author investigates the motives of Hasan-i Sabbah as an Ismaili da‘iinfo-icon and a revolutionary leader and the circumstances under which, against all odds, he succeeded in establishing the Nizari Ismaili state of Persia with a branch in Syria. In the third chapter, Dr. Daftary looks at the situation of the Syrian Nizari Ismailis in the time of Rashid al-Dininfo-icon Sinan (d. 1193 CE), their most famous leader. It was also in his time that the Crusadersinfo-icon and their Western chroniclers began to fabricate a number of connected tales, the so-called Assassin legends, about the secret practices of the Nizaris. The author who has already investigated these tales in his Assassin Legends: Myths of the Ismailis (1994), shows how these fanciful stories rooted in the “imaginative ignorance” of the Crusader circles found their culmination in Marco Polo’s account. This account was treated as an accurate description of Nizari teachings and practices until modern times.

    The Nizari Ismailis were preoccupied, during the Alamut period of their history, with their survival in a very hostile environment. Nevertheless, they maintained a sophisticated outlook and a literary tradition, elaborating their teachings in response to changed circumstances of the Alamut period. Hasan-i Sabbah himself was a learned theologian and he is credited with establishing an impressive library of Alamut. The fortress communities of the Nizari Ismailis of the Alamut period also provided safe havens for numerous outside scholars, especially after the initiation of the Mongol invasions. Foremost among these scholars was Nasir al-Din Tusi (d. 1274 CE) who spent some three decades partaking of their patronage of learning. Chapter 9 chronicles Tusi’s association with the Ismailis, also explaining his conversion to Ismailism as described in his own spiritual autobiography (sayr va suluk). Tusi also made important contributions to the Nizari Ismaili thought of the period as expressed in his Rawda-yi taslim, published recently by the IIS together with an English translation under the title of Paradise of Submission.

    The final chapter in the second part of this book investigates how after the collapse of their state under the onslaught of the Mongol hordes in 1225 CE, the Nizari Ismailis survived precariously in Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and later India, using different guises to escape persecution. In Iran and Central Asia, in particular, they dissimulated as Sufis without affiliating themselves to any of the Sufi orders. This chapter also explains the doctrinal affinities of these two independent esoteric traditions in Islam that enabled the Nizari Ismailis to adopt the mantle of Sufisminfo-icon as part of their dissimulating (taqiyyainfo-icon) practices. The chapter also surveys the highlights of the Anjudan revival in Nizari Ismailism during which the Imams successfully asserted their direct leadership over various Ismaili communities, especially in Central and South Asia. The final chapter the book presents an overview of the intellectual activities of the Ismailis during the medieval times. Amongst such activities, particular attention is paid to theology, not only as kalaminfo-icon, but also as a tradition influencing other intellectual activities of this Shi‘i Muslim community, as well as philosophy, law, historiography and certain distinctly Ismaili traditions and institutions of learning.

  • Contents

    Note on the Text
    1. Diversity in Islam
    2. The Ismailis and Ismaili Studies

    Part I. The Early and Fatimid Phases

    3. The Early Ismaili Movement and the Ismaili-Qarmati Schism
    4. The Ismaili Da‘wainfo-icon and the Fatimid Dawlainfo-icon
    5. Sayyida Hurra: The Ismaili Queen of Yaman

    Part II. The Nizari Phase

    6. Historiography of the Early Nizari Ismailis in Persia
    7. Hasan-i Sabbah and the Origins of the Nizari Ismaili Da‘wa and State
    8. The Syrian Ismailis and the Crusadersinfo-icon: History and Myth
    9. Nasir al-Dininfo-icon al-Tusi and the Ismailis
    10. Ismaili-Sufi Relations in Post-Alamutinfo-icon Persia

    Part III. Aspects of Ismaili Thought

    11. Intellectual Life among the Ismailis

    Select Bibliography
  • Select Bibliography


    Abu’l-Fawaris Ahmad b. Yaqub. al-Risala fi’l-imamainfo-icon, ed. and tr. Sami N. Makarem as The Political Doctrine of the Ismailis (The Imamateinfo-icon). Delmar, NY, 1977.
    Abu Ishaq Quhistani. Haft babinfo-icon-i Abu Ishaq, ed. and tr. W. Ivanow. Bombay, 1959.
    Abu Shama, Shihab al-Dininfo-icon b. Ismail. Kitab al-rawaatayn fi akhbar al-dawlatayn.Cairo, 1287-88/1870-71.
    Abu Tammam, [Yusuf b. Muammad al-Nisaburi]. An Ismaili Heresiography: The ‘Bab al-shaynan’ from Abu Tammam’s Kitab al-shajara, ed. and tr. W.Madelung and Paul E. Walker. Leiden, 1998.
    Amanat, Abbas. ‘The Nuqnawi Movement of Mamud Pisikhani and his Persian Cycle of Mystical Materialism’, in Daftary, ed., Mediaeval Ismaili History, pp. 281-297.
    Amirinfo-icon-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali. The Divine Guide in Early Shi‘isminfo-icon: The Sources of Esotericism in Islam, tr. D. Streight. Albany, NY, 1994.
    Arjomand, Said A. The Shadow of God and the Hidden Imaminfo-icon. Chicago, 1984.
    Asani, Ali S. ‘The Ismaili ginans as Devotional Literature’, in R.S. McGregor, ed., Devotional Literature in South Asia: Current Research, 1985-1988. Cambridge, 1992, pp. 101-112.
    ——— ‘The Ismaili ginans: Reflections on Authority and Authorship’, in Daftary, ed., Mediaeval Ismaili History, pp. 265-280; reprinted in revised form in A. Asani, Ecstasy and Enlightenment: The Ismaili Devotional Literature of South Asia. London, 2002, pp. 82-99.
    Babayan, Kathryn. ‘Sufis, Dervishes and Mullas: The Controversy over Spiritual and Temporal Domination in Seventeenth-Century Safavid Iran’, in Charles Melville, ed., Safavid Persia. London, 1996, pp. 117-138.
    al-Baghdadi, Abu Mansur ‘Abd al-Qahir b. Tahir. al-Farq bayn al-firaq, ed. M. Badr. Cairo, 1328/1910. English trans., Moslem Schisms and Sects, part II, tr. Abraham S. Halkin. Tel-Aviv, 1935.
    Bayburdi, Chingiz G.A. Zhizn i tvorchestvo Nizari-Persidskogo poeta XIII-XIV vv. Moscow, 1966. Persian trans., Zindigi va athar-i Nizari, tr. M. Sadri. Tehran, 1370 Sh. /1991.
    Berchem, Max van. ‘Epigraphie des Assassins de Syrie’, Journal Asiatique, 9 serie, 9 (1897), pp. 453-501; reprinted in his Opera Minora. Geneva, 1978, vol. 1, pp. 453-501; reprinted in Bryan S. Turner, ed., Orientalism: Early Sources, Volume I, Readings in Orientalism. London, 2000, pp. 279-309.
    Bertel’s, Andrey E. Nasir-i Khosrov i ismailizm. Moscow, 1959. Persian trans., Nasir-i Khusraw va Ismailiyan, tr. Y. Ariyanpur. Tehran, 1346 Sh./1967.
    Bertel’s, Andrey E. and M. Bakoev. Alphabetic Catalogue of Manuscripts found by 1959-1963 Expedition in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region. Moscow, 1967.
    Bianquis, Thierry. Damas et la Syrie sous la domination Fatimide (359-468/969-1076). Damascus, 1986-89.
    Bosworth, C. Edmund. The History of the Saffarids of Sistaninfo-icon and the Maliks of Nimruz (247/861 to 949/1542-3). Costa Mesa, CA, and New York, 1994.
    ——— The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. Edinburgh and New York, 1996.
    Browne, Edward G. A Literary History of Persia. Cambridge, 1902-24.
    Cahen, Claude. ‘Quelques chroniques anciennes relatives aux derniers Fatimides’, Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale du Caire, 37 (1937-38), pp. 1-27.
    ———‘Une chronique Syrienne du VIe/XIIe siècle: Le Bustan al-Jami‘’,Bulletin d’Études Orientales, 7-8 (1937-38), pp. 113-158.
    ——— ‘Le problème du Shi‘isme dans l’Asie Mineure Turque préottomane’, in T. Fahd, ed., Le Shi‘isme Imamite. Paris, 1970, pp. 115-129.
    Canard, Marius. ‘Fatimidsinfo-icon’, EI2, vol. 2, pp. 850-862.
    Casanova, Paul. ‘Monnaie des Assassins de Perse’, Revue Numismatique, 3 série, 11 (1893), pp. 343-352.
    ——— ‘Les derniers Fatimides’, Mémoires de la Mission Archéologique Française du Caire, 6 (1897), pp. 415-445.
    Corbin, Henry (ed. and tr.) Trilogie Ismaélienne. Tehran and Paris, 1961.
    ——— ‘L’initiation Ismaélienne ou l’ésotérisme et le Verbe’, Eranos Jahrbuch, 39 (1970), pp. 41-142; reprinted in his L’homme et son ange. Paris, 1983, pp. 81-205.
    ——— En Islam Iranien. Aspects spirituels et philosophiques. Paris, 1971-72.
    ——— ‘Un roman initiatique Ismaélien du Xe siècle’, Cahiers de Civilisation Médiévale, 15, no. 2 (1972), pp. 1-25, 121-142.
    ——— ‘The Ismaili Response to the Polemic of Ghazali’, in S.H. Nasr, ed., Isma‘ili Contributions to Islamic Culture. Tehran, 1977, pp. 67-98.
    ——— Cyclical Time and Ismaili Gnosis, tr. R. Manheim and J.W. Morris. London, 1983.
    ——— History of Islamic Philosophy, tr. L. Sherrard. London, 1993.
    Crone, Patricia and M. Hinds. God’s Caliphinfo-icon: Religious Authority in the First Centuries of Islam. Cambridge, 1986.
    Dabashi, Hamid. Authority in Islam: From the Rise of Muhammad to the Establishment of the Umayyadsinfo-icon. New Brunswick, NJ, 1989.
    ——— ‘The Philosopher/Vizierinfo-icon: Khwaja Nasir al-Din al-Tusi and the Ismailis’, in Daftary, ed., Mediaeval Ismaili History, pp. 231-245.
    Dachraoui, Farhat. Le Califat Fatimide au Maghrebinfo-icon (296-365 H. /909-975 Jc): histoire politique et institutions. Tunis, 1981.
    Daftary, Farhad. The Ismailis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge, 1990. Persian trans., Ta’rikh va ‘aqa’id-i Ismailiyya, tr. F. Badrai. Tehran, 1375 Sh./1996.
    ——— ‘The Earliest Ismailis’, Arabica, 38 (1991), pp. 214-245; reprinted in E. Kohlberg, ed., Shi‘ism. Aldershot, 2003, pp. 235-266.
    ——— ‘Persian Historiography of the Early Nizari Ismailis’, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, 30 (1992), pp. 91-97.
    ——— ‘A Major Schism in the Early Ismaili Movement’, Studia Islamica, 77 (1993), pp. 123-139.
    ——— The Assassin Legends: Myths of the Ismailis. London, 1994. Persian trans., Afsanaha-yi hashshashin, tr. F. Badra’i. Tehran, 1376 Sh./1997.
    ——— (ed.) Mediaeval Ismaili History and Thought. Cambridge, 1996. Persian trans., Ta’rikh va andishaha-yi Ismaili dar sadaha-yi miyana, tr. F. Badrai. Tehran, 1382 Sh./2003.
    ——— ‘Hasan-i Sabbah and the Origins of the Nizari Ismaili Movement’, in his Mediaeval Ismaili History, pp. 181-204.
    ——— ‘Diversity in Islam: Communities of Interpretation’, in Azim A. Nanji, ed., The Muslim Almanac. Detroit, MI, 1996, pp. 161-173.
    ——— A Short History of the Ismailis: Traditions of a Muslim Community. Edinburgh, 1998. French trans., Les Ismaeliens, tr. Z. Rajan-Badouraly. Paris, 2003. German trans., Kurze Geschichte der Ismailiten, tr. K. Maier. Wurzburg, 2003. Persian trans., Mukhtasari dar ta‘rikh-i Ismailiyya, tr. F. Badrai. Tehran, 1378 Sh./1999. Russian trans., Kratkaya istoriya ismailizma, tr. Leila R. Dodikhudoeva and L.N. Dodkhudoeva. Moscow, 2003.
    ——— ‘Sayyida Hurra: The Ismaili Sulayhid Queen of Yemen’, in Gavin R.G. Hambly, ed., Women in the Medieval Islamic World: Power, Patronage and Piety. New York, 1998, pp. 117-130.
    ——— ‘The Ismaili Da‘wainfo-icon outside the Fatimid Dawlainfo-icon’, in M. Barrucand, ed., L’Egypte Fatimide, son art et son histoire. Paris, 1999, pp. 29-43.
    ——— ‘Ismaili-Sufi Relations in Early Post-Alamutinfo-icon and Safavid Persia’, in L. Lewisohn and D. Morgan, ed., The Heritage of Sufisminfo-icon: Volume III, Late Classical Persianate Sufism (1501-1750) – The Safavid and Mughal Period. Oxford, 1999, pp. 275-289.
    ——— ‘Intellectual Life among the Ismailis: An Overview’, in F. Daftary, ed., Intellectual Traditions in Islam. London, 2000, pp. 87-111.
    ——— ‘Nasir al-Din al-Tusi and the Ismailis of the Alamut Period’, in N. Pourjavady and Z. Vesel, ed., Nasir al-Din Tusi, philosophe et savant de XIIIesiècle. Tehran, 2000, pp. 59-67.
    ——— ‘The Ismailis and the Crusadersinfo-icon: History and Myth’, in Z. Hunyadi and J. Laszlovszky, ed., The Crusaders and the Military Orders: Expanding the Frontiers of Medieval Latin Christianity. Budapest, 2001, pp. 21-41.
    ——— ‘Rashid al-Din Sinan’, EI2, vol. 8, pp. 442-443.
    ———‘Carmatians’, EIR, vol. 4, pp. 823-832.
    ——— ‘Da‘iinfo-icon’, EIR, vol. 6, pp. 590-593.
    ——— ‘Dawr’, EIR, vol. 7, pp. 151-153.
    ——— ‘Fatimids’, EIR, vol. 9, pp. 423-426.
    ———‘Hasan Sabbah’, EIR, vol. 12, pp. 34-37.
    ——— ‘Ismailiyya’, in Dairat al-Ma‘arifinfo-icon-i Buzurg-i Islami (The Great Islamic Encyclopaedia), ed. K. Musavi Bojnurdi. Tehran, 1367 Sh.- /1989- , vol. 8, pp. 681-702.
    Daniel, Norman. Islam and the West: The Making of an Image. Edinburgh, 1966.
    Eboo Jamal, Nadia. Surviving the Mongols: Nizari Quhistai and the Continuity of Ismaili Tradition in Persia. London, 2002. Persian trans., Ismiliyan pas az Mughul: Nizari Quhistani va tadavum-i sunnat-i Ismaili dar Tehran, tr. F. Badra’i. Tehran, 1382 Sh./2003.
    Elisseeff, Nikita. Nurinfo-icon ad-Dininfo-icon, un grand prince Musulman de Syrie au temps des Croisades (511-569 H./1118-1174). Damascus, 1967.
    Encyclopaedia Iranica, ed. E. Yarshater. London and New York, 1982– .
    The Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. H.A.R. Gibb et al. New ed., Leiden, 1960-2005.
    Fida’iinfo-icon Khurasani, Muhammad b. Zayn al-‘Abidin. Kitab-i hidayat al-mu’minin al-talibin, ed. A.A. Semenov. Moscow, 1959.
    Firishta, Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah Astarabadi. Ta‘rikh-i Firishta, ed. J. Briggs. Bombay, 1832. English trans., History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India, tr. J. Briggs. London, 1829.
    Fyzee, Asaf A.A. ‘The Study of the Literature of the Fatimid Da‘wa’, in G. Makdisi, ed., Arabic and Islamic Studies in Honor of Hamilton A.R. Gibb. Leiden and Cambridge, MA, 1965, pp. 232-249.
    ——— A Compendium of Fatimid Law. Simla, 1969.
    Gabrieli, Francesco. Arab Historians of the Crusades, tr. E.J. Costello. Berkeley, 1969.
    al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad b. Muhammad al-Tusi. Fada’ih al-Batiniyyainfo-icon wa-fada’il al-Mustazhiriyya, ed. ‘A. Badawi. Cairo. 1964. Partial English trans. Richard J. McCarthy, in his Freedom and Fulfillment. Boston, 1980, pp. 175-286.
    Goeje, Michael Jan de. Mémoire sur les Carmathes du Bahrain et les Fatimides. 2nd ed., Leiden, 1886.
    Guyard, Stanislas. ‘Un grand maitre des Assassins au temps de Saladin’, Journal Asiatique, 7 serie, 9 (1877), pp. 324-489.
    Hafiz-i Abru, ‘Abd Allah b. Lutf Allah al-Bihdadini. Majma‘ al-tawarikh al-sultaniyya: qismat-i khulafa’-i ‘Alawiyya-yi Maghribinfo-icon va Misr va Nizariyan va rafiqan, ed. M. Mudarrisi Zanjani. Tehran, 1364 Sh. /1985.
    Haft bab-i Baba Sayyidna, ed. W. Ivanow, in his Two Early Ismaili Treatises. Bombay, 1933, pp. 4-44. English trans. Hodgson, in his The Order of Assassins, pp. 279-324.
    Halm, Heinz. Kosmologie und Heilslehre der fruhen Ismailiya. Wiesbaden, 1978.
    ——— ‘Die Sirat Ibn Haushab: Die ismailitische dawainfo-icon im Jemen und die Fatimiden’, Die Welt des Orients, 12 (1981), pp. 107-135.
    ——— Die islamische Gnosis. Zurich and Munich, 1982.
    ——— ‘Les Fatimides a Salamya’, in Melanges offerts au Professeur Dominique Sourdel; being, Revue des Etudes Islamiques, 54 (1986), pp. 133-149.
    ——— Shiism, tr. J. Watson. Edinburgh, 1991.
    ——— The Empire of the Mahdiinfo-icon: The Rise of the Fatimids, tr. M. Bonner. Leiden, 1996.
    ——— ‘The Cosmology of the Pre-Fatimid Ismailiyya’, in Daftary, ed., Mediaeval Ismaili History, pp. 75-83.
    ——— ‘The Ismaili Oath of Allegiance (ahdinfo-icon) and the "Sessions of Wisdom" (majalisinfo-icon al-hikmainfo-icon) in Fatimid Times’, in Daftary, ed., Mediaeval Ismaili History, pp. 91-115.
    ——— The Fatimids and their Traditions of Learning. London, 1997. Persian trans., Fatimiyan va sunnatha-yi ta‘limi va ‘ilmi-yi anan, tr. F. Badra’i. Tehran, 1377 Sh./1998.
    ——— Die Kalifen von Kairo. Die Fatimiden in Agypten 973-1074. Munich, 2003.
    al-Hamawi, Abu’l-Fada’il Muhammad. al-Ta’rikh al-Mansuri, ed. P.A. Gryaznevich. Moscow, 1963.
    Hamd Allah Mustawfi Qazwini. Ta’rikh-i guzida, ed. A. Navai. Tehran, 1339 Sh./1960.
    Hamdani, Abbas. The Beginnings of the Ismaili Da‘ wa in Northern India. Cairo, 1956.
    ——— ‘The Dai Hatim Ibn Ibrahim al-Hamidi (d. 596 H./1199 A.D.) and his Book Tuhfat al-Qulub’, Oriens, 23-24 (1970-71), pp. 258-300.
    ——— ‘Evolution of the Organisational Structure of the Fatimi Dawah: The Yemeni and Persian Contribution’, Arabian Studies, 3 (1976), pp. 85-114.
    ——— ‘The Tayyibi-Fatimid Community of the Yaman at the Time of the Ayyubid Conquest of Southern Arabia’, Arabian Studies, 7 (1985), pp. 151-160.
    Hamdani, Abbas and François de Blois. ‘A Re-examination of al-Mahdi’s Letter to the Yemenites on the Genealogy of the Fatimid Caliphs’, JRAS (1983), pp. 173-207.
    al-Hamdani, Husain F. ‘The Letters of al-Mustansir Bi’llah’, BSO(A)S, 7 (1934), pp. 307-324.
    ——— On the Genealogy of Fatimid Caliphs. Cairo, 1958.
    al-Hamdani, Husayn F. and H.S. Mahmud al-Juhani. al-Sulayhiyyun wa’l-haraka al-Fatimiyyainfo-icon fi’l-Yaman. Cairo, 1955.Hammer-Purgstall, Joseph von. Die Geschichte der Assassinen. Stuttgart and Tubingen, 1818. French trans., Histoire de l’ordre des Assassins, tr. J.J. Hellert and P.A. de la Nourais. Paris, 1833. English trans., The History of the Assassins, tr. Oswald C. Wood. London, 1835; reprinted, New York, 1968.
    Hauzinski, Jerzy. ‘On Alleged Attempts at Converting the Assassins to Christianity in the Light of William of Tyre’s Account’, Folia Orientalia, 15 (1974), pp. 229-246.
    Hellmuth, Leopold. Die Assassinenlegende in der osterreichischen Geschichtsdichtung des Mittelalters. Vienna, 1988.
    Hodgson, Marshall G.S. The Order of Assassins: The Struggle of the Early Nizari Ismailis against the Islamic World. The Hague, 1955. Persian trans., Firqa-yi Ismailiyya, tr. F. Badra’i. 2nd ed., Tehran, 1369 Sh./1990.
    ——— ‘The Ismaili State’, in The Cambridge History of Iran: Volume 5, The Saljuqinfo-icon and Mongol Periods, ed. John A. Boyle. Cambridge, 1968, pp. 422-482.
    ——— The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization. Chicago, 1974.
    Hollister, John N. The Shi‘ainfo-icon of India. London, 1953.
    Hourcade, Bernard. ‘Alamut’, EIR, vol. 1, pp. 797-801.
    Hunsberger, Alice C. Nasir Khusraw, The Ruby of Badakhshan: A Portrait of the Persian Poet, Traveller and Philosopher. London, 2000. Persian trans., Nasir-i Khusraw, la‘l-i Badakhshan, tr. F. Badra’i. Tehran, 1380 Sh./2001.
    Husayn, Muhammad Kamil. Fi adabinfo-icon Misr al-Fatimiyya. Cairo, 1950.
    Ibn al-Athir, Izz al-Din Ali b. Muhammad. al-Kamil fi’l-ta’rikh, ed. C.J. Tornberg. Leiden, 1851-76.
    Ibn al-Dawadari, Abu Bakr b. Abd Allah. Kanz al-durar, vol. 6, ed. S. al-Munajjid. Cairo, 1961.
    Ibn Fadl Allah al-Umari, Shihab al-Din. Masalik al-absar fi mamalik al-amsar, ed. A. Fuad Sayyidinfo-icon. Cairo, 1985.
    Ibn Hawqal, Abu’l-Qasim b. Ali. Kitab surat al-ara, ed. J.H. Kramers. 2nd ed., Leiden, 1938-39. French trans., Configuration de la terre, tr. J.H. Kramers and G. Wiet. Paris, 1964.
    Ibn Hawshab Mansur al-Yaman, Abu’l-Qasim al-Hasan b. Farah. Kitab al-rushd wa’l-hidaya, partial ed. M. Kamil Husayn, in W. Ivanow, ed., Collectanea: Vol. 1. Leiden, 1948, pp. 185-213. English trans. W. Ivanow, in his Studies in Early Ismailism. Leiden, 1948, pp. 51-83; 2nd ed., Bombay, 1955, pp. 29-59.
    Ibn al-Haytham, Abu Abd Allah Jafar b. Ahmad. Kitab al-munazarat, ed. and tr.
    W. Madelung and Paul E. Walker as The Advent of the Fatimids: A Contemporary Shi‘i Witness. London, 2000.
    Ibn Malik al-Yamani, Muhammad. Kashf asrar al-Batiniyya wa-akhbar al-Qaramita, ed. Muhammad Z. al-Kawthari. Cairo, 1357/1939; ed. Zakkar, in his Akhbar al-Qaramita, pp. 201-251.
    Ibn Muyassar, Taj al-Din Muhammad b. Ali. Akhbar Misr, ed. A. Fuad Sayyid. Cairo, 1981.
    Ibn al-Nadim, Abu’l-Faraj Muhammad b. Ishaq. Kitab al-fihrist, ed. M. Rida Tajaddud. 2nd ed., Tehran, 1973.
    Ibn al-Qalanisi, Abu Yala Hamza b. Asad. Dhayl ta’rikh Dimashq, ed. H.F. Amedroz. Leiden, 1908; ed. S. Zakkar. Damascus, 1983.
    Ibn Taghribirdi, Abu’l-Mahasin Jamal al-Din Yusuf. al-Nujum al-zahira fi muluk Misr wa’l-Qahira. Cairo, 1348-92/1929-72.
    Ibn al-Tuwayr, al-Murtada b. al-Hasan. Nuzhat al-muqlatayn fi akhbar al-dawlatayn, ed. A. Fu’ad Sayyid. Stuttgart and Beirut, 1992.
    Ibn al-Walid, ‘Ali b. Muhammad. Damigh al-banil wa-hatf al-munadil, ed. M. Ghalib. Beirut, 1982.
    ——— Taj al-‘aqa’id wa-ma‘din al-fawa’id, ed. ‘Arif Tamir. Beirut, 1967.
    Ibn Zafir, Jamal al-Din ‘Ali al-Azdi. Akhbar al-duwal al-munqti‘a, ed. André Ferré. Cairo, 1972.
    Idris ‘Imad al-Din b. al-Hasan. Uyuninfo-icon al-akhbar wa-funun al-athar, vols. 4-6, ed. M. Ghalib. Beirut, 1973-78; vol. 7, ed. with summary English trans. by A. Fu’ad Sayyid in collaboration with P.E. Walker and M.A. Pomerantz as The Fatimids and their Successors in Yaman: The History of an Islamic Community. London, 2002.
    ——— Zahr al-ma‘ani, ed. M. Ghalib. Beirut, 1991.
    al-Imad, Leila S. ‘Women and Religion in the Fatimid Caliphateinfo-icon: The Case of al-Sayyidah al-Hurrah, Queen of Yemen’, in Michel M. Mazzaoui and Vera B. Moreen, ed., Intellectual Studies on Islam: Essays Written in Honor of Martin B. Dickson. Salt Lake City, 1990, pp. 137-144.
    Ivanow, Wladimir. A Guide to Ismaili Literature. London, 1933.
    ——— ‘A Forgotten Branch of the Ismailis’, JRAS (1938), pp. 57-79.
    ——— ‘An Ismaili Poem in Praise of Fidawis’, JBBRAS, NS, 14 (1938), pp. 63-72.
    ——— ‘Tombs of Some Persian Ismaili Imams’, JBBRAS, NS, 14, (1938), pp. 49-62.
    ——— ‘The Organization of the Fatimid Propaganda’, JBBRAS, NS, 15 (1939), pp. 1-35; reprinted in Bryan S. Turner, ed., Orientalism: Early Sources, Volume I, Readings in Orientalism. London, 2000, pp. 531-571.
    ——— Ismaili Tradition Concerning the Rise of the Fatimids. London, etc., 1942.
    ——— The Alleged Founder of Ismailism. Bombay, 1946.
    ——— (ed.) Collectanea: Vol. 1. Leiden, 1948.
    ——— ‘Satpanth’, in Ivanow, ed., Collectanea, pp. 1-54.
    ——— Brief Survey of the Evolution of Ismailism. Leiden, 1952.
    ——— Alamut and Lamasar: Two Mediaeval Ismaili Strongholds in Iran – An Archaeological Study. Tehran, 1960.
    ——— Ismaili Literature: A Bibliographical Survey. Tehran, 1963.
    Ja‘far b. Mansur al-Yaman. Kitab al-‘alim wa’l-ghulam, ed. M. Ghalib, in his Arba‘ kutub haqqaniyya. Beirut, 1983, pp. 13-75; ed. and tr. James W. Morris as The Master and the Disciple: An Early Islamic Spiritual Dialogue. London, 2001.
    ——— Kitab al-kashf, ed. Rudolf Strothmann. London, etc., 1952.
    ——— Sara’ir wa-asrar al-nutaqa’, ed. M. Ghalib. Beirut, 1984.
    Jafri, S. Husain M. Origins and Early Development of Shi‘a Islam. London and New York, 1979.
    Jambet, Christian. La grande résurrection d’Alamut. Lagrasse, 1990.
    Joinville, Jean de. Histoire de Saint Louis, ed. Natalie de Wailly. Paris, 1868. English trans., Memoirs of John Lord de Joinville, tr. T. Johnes. Hafod, 1807. English trans., The Memoirs of John Lord de Joinville: A New English Version, tr. E. Wedgwood. London, 1906.
    Juwayni, ‘Ala’ al-Din ‘Ata-Malik b. Muhammad. Ta’rikh-i jahan-gusha, ed. M. Qazwini. Leiden and London, 1912-37. English trans., The History of the World-Conqueror, tr. John A. Boyle. Manchester, 1958; reprinted as Genghis Khan: The History of the World-Conqueror. Manchester and Paris, 1997.
    Kashani, Jamal al-Din Abu’l–Qasim ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Ali. Zubdat al-tawarikh: bakhsh-i Fatimiyun va Nizariyan, ed. Muhammad T. Danishpazhuh. 2nd ed., Tehran, 1366 Sh./ 1987.
    Khayrkhwah-i Harati, Muhammad Rida b. Khwaja Sultan Husayn. Kalaminfo-icon-i pirinfo-icon, ed. and tr. W. Ivanow. Bombay, 1935.
    ——— Tasnifat, ed. W. Ivanow. Tehran, 1961.
    King, E.J. The Knights Hospitallers in the Holy Land. London, 1931.
    al-Kirmani, Hamid al-Din Ahmad b. ‘Abd Allah. Kitab al-riyad, ed. ‘A. Tamir. Beirut, 1960.
    ——— al-Masabih fi ithbat al-imama, ed. M. Ghalib. Beirut, 1969.
    ——— Rahat al-‘aqlinfo-icon, ed. M. Kamil Husayn and M. Mustafa Hilmi. Leiden, 1953; ed. M. Ghalib. Beirut, 1967.
    Kishavarz, Karim. Hasan-i Sabbah. Tehran, 1344 Sh./1965.
    Klemm, Verena. Die Mission des fatimidischen Agenten al-Mu’ayyad fi d-din in Siraz. Frankfurt am Main, 1989.
    Kohlberg, Etan. Belief and Law in Imami Shi‘ism. Aldershot, 1991.
    al-Kulayni, Abu Ja‘far Muhammad b. Yaqub. al-Usul min al-kafi, ed. Ali Akbar al-Ghaffari. Tehran, 1388/1968.
    Lewis, Bernard. ‘Kamal al-Din’s Biography of Rashid al-Din Sinan’, Arabica, 13 (1966), pp. 225-267; reprinted in B. Lewis, Studies in Classical and Ottoman Islam (7th-16th Centuries). London, 1976, article X.
    ——— ‘The Ismailites and the Assassins’, in Kenneth M. Setton, ed., A History of the Crusades: Volume I, The First Hundred Years, ed. Marshall W. Baldwin. 2nd ed., Madison, WI, 1969, pp. 99-132.
    ——— The Assassins: A Radical Sect in Islam. London, 1967. French trans., Les Assassins, tr. A. Pelissier. Paris, 1982. Persian trans., Fida’iyan-i Isma‘ili, tr. F. Badrai Tehran, 1348 Sh./1969.
    Lewisohn, Leonard. ‘Sufism and Isma‘ili Doctrine in the Persian Poetry of Nizari Quhistani (645-721/1247-1321)’, Iran, Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, 41 (2003), pp. 229-251. Madelung, Wilferd. ‘Fatimiden und Bahrainqarmaten’, Der Islam, 34 (1959), pp. 34-88. English trans., ‘The Fatimids and the Qarmatisinfo-icon of Bahrayn’, in Daftary, ed., Mediaeval Isma‘ili History, pp. 21-73.
    ——— ‘Das Imamatinfo-icon in der fruhen ismailitischen Lehre, Der Islam, 37 (1961), pp. 43-135.
    ——— ‘The Sources of Isma‘ili Law’, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 35 (1976), pp. 29-40; reprinted in his Religious Schools, article XVIII.
    ——— ‘Aspects of Isma‘ili Theology: The Prophetic Chain and the God Beyond Being’, in S.H. Nasr, Isma‘ili Contributions to Islamic Culture. Tehran, 1977, pp. 51-65; reprinted in his Religious Schools, article XVII.
    ——— Religious Schools and Sects in Medieval Islam. London, 1985.
    ——— ‘Nasir ad-Din Tusi’s Ethics Between Philosophy, Shiism, and Sufism’, in Richard G. Hovannisian, ed., Ethics in Islam. Malibu, CA, 1985, pp. 85-101.
    ——— (ed.) Arabic Texts Concerning the History of the Zaydi Imams of Tabaristan, Daylaman and Gilan. Beirut and Wiesbaden, 1987.
    ——— Religious Trends in Early Islamic Iran. Albany, NY, 1988.
    ——— ‘Ismailiyya’, EI2, vol. 4, pp. 198-206.
    ——— ‘Karmati’, EI2, vol. 4, pp. 660-665.
    al-Maliji, Abu’l-Qasim b. Wahb. al-Majalis al-Mustansiriyya, ed. M. Kamil Husayn. Cairo, [1947].
    al-Maqrizi, Taqi al-Din Ahmad b. ‘Ali. Itti‘az al-hunafa’ bi-akhbar al-a’imma al-Fatmiyyin al-khulafa’, ed. Jamal al-Din al-Shayyal and Muhammad H.M. Ahmad. Cairo, 1387-93/1967-73.
    ——— Kitab al-mawa‘iz wa’l-i‘tibar fi dhikrinfo-icon al-khitat wa’l-athar, Bulaq, 1270/1853-54; ed. A. Fu’ad Sayyid. London, 1995.
    Massignon, Louis. ‘Esquisse d’une bibliographie Qarmate’, in T.W. Arnold and R.A. Nicholson, ed., A Volume of Oriental Studies Presented to Edward G. Browne on his 60th Birthday. Cambridge, 1922, pp. 329-338; reprinted in L. Massignon, Opera Minora, ed., Y. Moubarac. Paris, 1969, vol. 1, pp. 627-639.
    Ma‘suminfo-icon ‘Ali Shah, Muhammad Ma‘sum Shirazi. Tara’iq al-haqa’iqinfo-icon, ed. Muhammad J. Mahjub. Tehran, 1339-45 Sh./1960-66.
    Mernissi, Fatimainfo-icon. The Forgotten Queens of Islam, tr. M.J. Lakeland. Cambridge, 1993.
    Michaud, Joseph F. Michaud’s History of the Crusades, tr. W. Robson. London, 1852.
    Miles, George C. ‘Coins of the Assassins of Alamut’, Orientalia Lovaniensia Periodica, 3 (1972), pp. 155-162.
    Minasian, Caro O. Shah Diz of Isma‘ili Fame, its Siege and Destruction. London, 1971.
    Mirza, Nasseh A. Syrian Ismailism: The Ever Living Line of the Imamate, AD 1100-1260. Richmond, Surrey, 1997.
    Momen, Moojan. An Introduction to Shi‘i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi‘ism. New Haven, 1985.
    al-Mu’ayyad fi’l-Din al-Shirazi, Abu Nasr Hibat Allah. al-Majalisal-Mu’ayyadiyya, vols. 1 and 3, ed. M. Ghalib. Beirut, 1974-84.
    ——— Sirat al-Mu’ayyad fi’l-Din da‘i al-du‘atinfo-icon, ed. M. Kamil Husayn. Cairo, 1949.
    Mudarris Radavi, Muhammad Taqi. Ahval va athar-i Abu Ja‘far Muhammad b. Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Tusi. 2nd ed., Tehran, 1354 Sh./1975.
    Mudarrisi Zanjani, Muhammad. Sargudhasht va ‘aqa’id-i falsafi-yi Khwaja Naiir al-Din Tusi. Tehran, 1335 Sh./1956.
    al-Mustansir bi’llah, Abu Tamim Ma‘add. al-Sijillat al-Mustansiriyya, ed. ‘Abd al-Mun‘im Majid. Cairo, 1954.
    Mustansir bi’llah [II] b. Muhammad b. Islam Shah. Pandiyat-i javanmardi, ed. and tr. W. Ivanow. Leiden, 1953.
    Nanji, Azim. ‘An Isma‘ili Theory of Walayah in the Da‘a’im al-Islam of Qadiinfo-icon al-Nu‘man’, in Donald P. Little, ed., Essays on Islamic Civilization Presented to Niyazi Berkes. Leiden, 1976, pp. 260-273.
    ——— The Nizari Isma‘ili Tradition in the Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent. Delmar, NY, 1978.
    Nasir-i Khusraw. Gushayish va rahayish, ed. S. Nafisi. Tehran, 1961; ed. and tr. F.M. Hunzai as Knowledge and Liberation: A Treatise on Philosophical Theology. London, 1998.
    ——— Jami‘ al-hikmatayn, ed. H. Corbin and M. Mu‘in. Tehran and Paris, 1953. French trans., Le livre réunissant les deux sagesses, tr. I. de Gastines. Paris, 1990.
    ——— Safar-nama, ed. M. Dabir Siyaqi. Tehran, 1356 Sh./1977; ed. and tr. Wheeler M. Thackston, Jr. as Naser-e Khosraw’s Book of Travels (Safarnama). Albany, NY, 1986.
    ——— Shish fasl, ed. and tr. W. Ivanow. Leiden, 1949.
    ——— Wajh-i din, ed. G.R. A‘vani. Tehran, 1977.
    ——— Zad al-musafirin, ed. Badhl al-Rahman. Berlin, 1341/1923.
    Nasr, S. Hossein. Ideals and Realities of Islam. New York, 1967.
    ——— Sufi Essays. London, 1972.
    al-Nawbakhti, Abu Muhammad al-Hasan b. Musa. Firaq al-Shi‘a, ed. H. Ritter. Istanbul, 1931.
    al-Nisaburi, Ahmad b. Ibrahim. Istitar al-imam, ed. W. Ivanow, in Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts, University of Egypt, 4, part 2 (1936), pp. 93-107. English trans. W. Ivanow, in his Ismaili Tradition, pp. 157-183.
    ——— Ithbat al-imama, ed. M. Ghalib. Beirut, 1984.
    Nizam al-Mulk, Abu ‘Ali Hasan b. ‘Ali Tusi. Siyar al-muluk (Siyasat-nama), ed. H.
    Darke. 2nd ed., Tehran, 1347 Sh./1968. English trans., The Book of Government; or, Rules for Kings, tr. H. Darke. 2nd ed., London, 1978.
    Nizari Quhistani, Hakim Sa‘d al-Din b. Shams al-Din. Divaninfo-icon, ed. M. Musaffa. Tehran, 1371-73 Sh./‘man b. Muhammad, al-Qadi Abu Hanifa. Asasinfo-icon al-ta’wilinfo-icon, ed. ‘Arif Tamir. Beirut, 1960.
    ——— Da‘a’im al-Islam, ed. Asaf A.A. Fyzee. Cairo, 1951-61. English trans., The Pillars of Islam, tr. Asaf A.A. Fyzee, completely revised by Ismail K. Poonawala. New Delhi, 2002-2004. Partial English trans. Asaf A.A. Fyzee as The Book of Faith. Bombay, 1974.
    ——— Iftitah al-da‘wa, ed. W. al-Qadi. Beirut, 1970; ed. F. Dachraoui. Tunis, 1975.
    ——— Kitab al-himma fi adab atba ‘al-a’imma, ed. M. Kamil Husayn. Cairo, [1948].
    ——— Kitab al-Majalis wa’l-musayarat, ed., H. Feki et al. Tunis, 1978.
    ——— Sharh al-akhbar, ed. S. Muhammad al-Husayni al-Jalali. Qumm, 1409-12/ 1988-92.
    ——— Ta’wil al-Da‘a’im, ed. Muhammad H. al-A‘zami. Cairo, 1967-72.
    al-Nuwayri, Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. ‘Abd al-Wahhab. Nihayat al-arab fi funun al-adab, vol. 25, ed. Muhammad J. ‘Abd al-‘Al al-Hini. Cairo, 1404/1984.
    Panj risala dar bayan-i afaq va anfus, ed. Andrey E. Bertel’s. Moscow, 1970.
    Polo, Marco. The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian, Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East, ed. and tr. H. Yule, 3rd revised ed. by H. Cordier. London, 1929.
    Poonawala, Ismail K. al-Sultan al-Khattab. Cairo, 1967.
    ——— ‘Al-Qadi al-Nu‘man’s Works and the Sources’, BSOAS, 36 (1973), pp. 109-115.
    ——— Biobibliography of Isma‘ili Literature. Malibu, CA, 1977.
    ——— ‘Al-Qadi al-Nu‘man and Isma‘ili Jurisprudence’, in Daftary, ed., Mediaeval
    Isma‘ili History, pp. 117-143.
    Pourjavady, Nasrollah and Peter L. Wilson. ‘Isma‘ilisinfo-icon and Ni‘matullahis’, Studia Islamica, 41 (1975), pp. 113-135.
    al-Qalqashandi, Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. ‘Ali. Subh al-a‘sha fi sina‘at al-insha’. Cairo, 1331-38/1913-20.
    al-Qummi, Sa‘d b. ‘Abd Allah al-Ash‘ari. Kitab al-maqalat wa’l-firaq, ed. Muhammad J. Mashkur. Tehran, 1963.
    Rashid al-Din Tabib, Faal Allah b. ‘Imad al-Dawla. Jami‘ al-tawarikh: qismat-i Isma‘iliyan va Fatimiyan va Nizariyan va da‘iyan va rafiqan, ed. Muhammad T. Danishpazhuh and M. Mudarrisi Zanjani. Tehran, 1338 Sh./1959.
    al-Rawandi, Muhammad b. ‘Ali. Rahat al-sudur, ed. M. Iqbal. London, 1921.
    al-Razi, Abu Hatim Ahmad b. Hamdan. A‘lam al-nubuwwainfo-icon, ed., S. al-Sawi and G.R. A‘vani. Tehran, 1977.
    ——— Kitab al-islah, ed., H. Minuchihr and M. Muhaqqiq. Tehran, 1377 Sh./ 1998.
    Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades. Cambridge, 1951-54.
    Rypka, Jan. History of Iranian Literature, ed. K. Jahn. Dordrecht, 1968.
    Safa, Dhabih Allah. Ta’rikh-i adabiyyat dar Iran. 2nd ed., Tehran, 1355 Sh./1976.
    Sayyid, Ayman Fu’ad. ‘Lumières nouvelles sur quelques sources de l’histoire Fatimide en Egypt’, Annales Islamologiques, 13 (1977), pp. 1-41.
    ——— al-Dawla al-Fatimiyya fi Misr: tafsir jadid. Cairo, 1413/1992.
    Schimmel, Annemarie. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill, 1975.
    Shackle, Christopher and Z. Moir. Ismaili Hymns from South Asia: An Introduction to the Ginans. London, 1992.
    al-Shahrastani, Abu’l-Fath Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-Karim. Kitab al-milal wa’l-nihal, ed. W. Cureton. London, 1842-46; ed. ‘Abd al-‘Aziz M. al-Wakil. Cairo, 1968. Partial English trans., Muslim Sects and Divisions: The Section on Muslim Sects in Kitab al-Milal wa’l-Nihal, tr. A.K. Kazi and J.G. Flynn. London, 1984. French trans., Livre des religions et des sectes, tr. D. Gimaret et al. Paris and Louvain, 1986-93.
    Shihab al-Din Shah al-Husayni. Khitabat-i ‘aliya, ed. H. Ujaqi. Bombay, 1963.
    al-Shushtari, al-Qadi Nur Allah. Majalis al-mu’minin. Tehran, 1375/1955.
    al-Sijistani, Abu Ya‘qub Ishaq b. Ahmad. Ithbat al-nubu’at (al-nubuwwat), ed. ‘Arif Tamir. Beirut, 1966.
    ——— Kitab al-yanabi‘, ed. and French trans. H. Corbin, in his Trilogie Ismaélienne. Tehran and Paris, 1961, text pp. 1-97, translation pp. 5-127. English trans. Paul E. Walker as The Book of Wellsprings, in his The Wellsprings of Wisdom: A Study of Abu Ya‘qub al-Sijistani’s Kitab al-Yanabi‘. Salt Lake City, 1994, pp. 37-111.
    Silvestre de Sacy, Antoine I. ‘Mémoire sur la dynastie des Assassins, et sur l’Étymologie de leur nom’, Mémoires de l’Institut Royal de France, 4 (1818), pp. 1-84; reprinted in Bryan S. Turner, ed., Orientalism: Early Sources, Volume I, Readings in Orientalism. London, 2000, pp. 118-169. English trans., ‘Memoir on the Dynasty of the Assassins, and on the Etymology of their Name’, in Daftary, The Assassin Legends, pp. 136-188.
    ——— Exposé de la religion des Druzes. Paris, 1838.
    Smet, Daniel de. La Quiétude de l’intellect: Néoplatonisme et gnose Ismaélienne dans l’œuvre de Hamid ad-Din al-Kirmani (Xe/XIes). Louvain, 1995.
    Smith, G. Rex. ‘Sulayhidsinfo-icon’, EI2, vol. 9, pp. 815-817.
    Southern, Richard W. Western Views of Islam in the Middle Ages. Cambridge, MA, 1962.
    Stark, Freya M. The Valleys of the Assassins. London, 1934.
    Stern, Samuel M. ‘Isma‘ili Propaganda and Fatimid Rule in Sindinfo-icon’, Islamic Culture, 23 (1949), pp. 298-307; reprinted in his Studies in Early Isma‘ilism, pp. 177-188.
    ——— ‘The Epistle of the Fatimid Caliph al-Amir (al-Hidaya al-Amiriyya)- its Date and its Purpose’, JRAS (1950), pp. 20-31; reprinted in S.M. Stern, History and Culture in the Medieval Muslim World. London, 1984, article X.
    ——— ‘The Succession to the Fatimid Imam al-Amir, the Claims of the later Fatimids to the Imamate, and the Rise of Tayyibi Ismailism’, Oriens, 4 (1951), pp. 193-255; reprinted in S.M. Stern, History and Culture in the Medieval Muslim World. London, 1984, article XI.
    ——— ‘Heterodox Isma‘ilism at the Time of al-Mu‘izz’, BSOAS, 17 (1955), pp. 10-33; reprinted in his Studies in Early Isma‘ilism, pp. 257-288.
    ——— ‘The Early Isma‘ili Missionaries in North-West Persia and in Khurasaninfo-icon and Transoxaniainfo-icon’, BSOAS, 23 (1960), pp. 56-90; reprinted in his Studies in Early Isma‘ilism, pp. 189-233.
    ——— ‘Isma‘ilis and Qarmatians’in L’Élaboration de l’Islam. Paris, 1961, pp. 99-108; reprinted in his Studies in Early Isma‘ilism, pp. 289-298; reprinted in E. Kohlberg, ed., Shi‘ism. Aldershot, 2003, pp. 267-276.
    ——— ‘Cairo as the Centre of the Isma‘ili Movement’, in Colloque international sur l’histoire du Caire. Cairo, 1972, pp. 437-450; reprinted in his Studies in Early Isma‘ilism, pp. 234-256.
    ——— Studies in Early Isma‘ilism. Jerusalem and Leiden, 1983.
    Stroeva, Luydmila V. Gosudarstvo ismailitov v Irane v XI-XIII vv. Moscow, 1978.
    Persian trans., Ta’rikh-i Isma‘iliyan dar Iran, tr. P. Munzavi. Tehran, 1371 Sh./1992.
    Strothmann, Rudolf (ed.) Gnosis Texte der Ismailiten. Göttingen, 1943.
    Sutuda, Manuchihr. Qila‘-i Isma‘iliyya. Tehran, 1345 Sh./1966.
    al-Tabari, Abu Ja‘far Muhammad b. Jarir. Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk, ed. Michael J. de Goeje et al., 3 series. Leiden, 1879-1901. English trans. by various scholars as The History of al-Tabari. Albany, NY, 1985-99.
    Tabañaba, ‘Alib. ‘Aziz. Burhan-i ma’athir. Hyderabad, 1936.
    Tamir, ‘Arif. al-Imama fi’l-Islam. Beirut, 1964.
    al-Tusi, Nasir al-Din Muhammad b. Muhammad. Akhlaq-i Nasiri, ed. M. Minuvi and ‘A. Haydari. Tehran, 1360 Sh./1981. English trans., The Nasirean Ethics, tr. G.M. Wickens. London, 1964.
    ——— Rawaat al-taslim, ed. and tr. W. Ivanow. Leiden, 1950; ed. and tr. S.J. Badakhchani as Paradise of Submission: A Medieval Treatise on Ismaili Thought. London, 2005. French trans., La Convocation d’Alamût. Somme de philosophie Isma‘ilienne, tr. Christian Jambet. Lagrasse, 1996.
    ——— Sayr va suluk, in al-Tusi’s Majmu‘a-yi rasa’il, ed. Muhammad T. Mudarris Raaavi. Tehran, 1335 Sh./1956, pp. 36-55; ed. and tr. S.J. Badakhchani as Contemplation and Action: The Spiritual Autobiography of a Muslim Scholar. London, 1998.
    ‘Umara al-Yamani, Abu Hamza Najm al-Din b. ‘Ali. Ta’rikh al-Yaman, ed. and tr. Henry C. Kay, in his Yaman, its Early Mediaeval History. London, 1892, text pp. 1-102, translation pp. 1-137; ed. Hasan S. Mahmud, Cairo, 1957.
    Umm al-Kitab, ed. W. Ivanow, in Der Islam, 23 (1936), pp. 1-132. Italian trans. P. Filippani-Ronconi. Naples, 1966.
    Vatikiotis, Panayiotis J. The Fatimid Theory of State. Lahore, 1957.
    Walker, Paul E. ‘Eternal Cosmos and the Womb of History: Time in Early Ismaili Thought’, IJMES, 9 (1978), pp. 355-366.
    ——— Early Philosophical Shiism: The Ismaili Neoplatonism of Abu Ya‘qub al-Sijistani. Cambridge, 1993.
    ——— ‘The Ismaili Da‘wa in the Reign of the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim’, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 30 (1993), pp. 161-182.
    ——— Abu Ya‘qub al-Sijistani: Intellectual Missionary. London, 1996. Persian trans., Abu Ya‘qub Sijistani: mutifakkir va da‘i-yi Isma‘ili, tr. F. Badra’i. Tehran, 1377 Sh./1998.
    ——— ‘Fatimid Institutions of Learning’, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 34 (1997), pp. 179-200.
    ——— ‘The Isma‘ili Da‘wa and the Fatimid Caliphate’, in M.W. Daly, ed., The Cambridge History of Egypt: Volume 1, Islamic Egypt, 640-1517, ed., C.F. Petry. Cambridge, 1998, pp. 120-150.
    ——— Hamid al-Din al-Kirmani: Ismaili Thought in the Age of al-Hakim. London, 1999. Persian trans., Hamid al-Din Kirmani: tafakkur-i Isma‘ili dar dawra-yi al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, tr. F. Badra’i. Tehran, 1379 Sh./2000.
    Watt, W. Montgomery. The Formative Period of Islamic Thought. Edinburgh, 1973.
    Willey, Peter. The Castles of the Assassins. London, 1963. Persian trans., Qila‘-i hashshashin, tr. Muhammad ‘Ali Saki. Tehran, 1368 Sh./1989.
    William of Tyre. Chronicon, ed. Robert B.C. Huygens. Turnhout, 1986. English trans., A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, tr. Emily A. Babcock and A.C. Krey. New York, 1943.
    Zahirinfo-icon al-Din Nishapuri. Saljuq-nama, ed. I. Afshar. Tehran, 1332 Sh./1953.
    Zakkar, Suhayl (ed.) Akhbar al-Qaramita. 2nd ed., Damascus, 1982.
  • Dr. Farhad Daftary

    Farhad Daftary completed his early and secondary education in Tehran, Rome, and London, before going to Washington, D.C., in 1958. He received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from the American University there, and then continued his graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley, leading to a Ph.D. degree in 1971. Subsequently, Dr. Daftary held different teaching posts, and, since 1988, he has been affiliated with The Institute of Ismaili Studies, London, where he is currently Co-Director and Head (since 1992) of the Department of Academic Research and Publications. An authority in Shi...Read more