Publication

  • Степени совершенства: Фатимидский трактат о лидерстве в Исламе

    I.B. Tauris в сотрудничестве с Институтом Исследований Исмаилизма

    ISBN HardBack:
    9781845111458
  • Книга «Степени совершенства» является многополярной работой, которая имеет огромное значение для философии средневекового мусульманского мышления. Она знакомит читателя с первой книгой Ахмада б. Ибрахима ал_Найсабури,первого неизвестного ученого начала 5/11в., который писал наисложнейшие и эрудированные философские трактаты о правомерности Имамата.Он пишет логично, структурировано и сравнительно менее сложно и запутано, чем другие ученые, которые работали над подобными текстами того периода. Выходец из Нишапура, выдающийся ученый периода Фатимидов ал-Найсабури выделяется, прежде всего, своей эрудицией и использованием рационалистической философии. Хотя у него есть и многие другие работы, надо отдать ему должное за книгу «Китаб Исбат ал-Имама», которая позволяет нам запоминать и понять не только значение его мышления, но и вероисповедания того времени.

    Вместо того чтобы основывать свою работу исключительно на священном Коране и на традициях, ал-Найсабури использует интеллектуальные инструменты для объяснения и изложения богословской мысли, представив целый ряд аргументов, среди которых первое место занимает теория «степени совершенства». Таким образом, он утверждает, что Бог создал каждый род и вид уникальным, и каждый из них имеет свой уникальный потенциал и значимое преимущество над другими. Далее он говорит о том, что каждая из этих категорий имеет свои отличия и неравенства, и среди каждой разновидности существует своя парадигма совершенности. Используя примеры из десяти категорий Аристотеля и других природных метафор (минералы, растения, деревья и животные), он соответствующим образом показывает то, как Имам стоит в зените человечества.

    Содержание «Китаб Исбат ал-Имама» представляет собой бесподобное понимание тонкостей правления Имам-Халифа Хакима (386-411/996-1021) не только рассказами, расширяющие наше понимание того периода, но и фактами, рассеивающие ошибочные обвинения этого халифа. Помимо того, что книга была аннотирована и контекстуализирована, сама работа содержит простое и доступное введение, в котором д-р Лалани знакомит читателей с автором и с его произведениями, описывает содержание работы, а также детально анализирует некоторые темы в тексте. В работе есть специальный раздел, посвященный теме "степени совершенства" и для специалистов приведены описания арабских рукописей вместе с примечаниями к переводу.

    Среди основных моментов работы можно выделить объяснение того, почему руководство необходимо во всем мире и, каким образом Имам должен всегда находиться везде, чтобы направлять человечество, описывая его эксклюзивность, почему он является и духовной, и интеллектуальной необходимостью. Пример вопроса находится в параграфе [45]:
    "Кроме того, мы говорим, что существуют различия (tafawut) и неравенства в степени совершенства (tafadul) в органах тела, самый лучший из которых это голова. Именно в голове [находится] лицо, по которому признают и отличают одного человека от другого. Среди внутренних органов самый лучший - это мозг, который является главным компонентом, будучи источником интеллекта. Точно так же Имам имеет место в мире, как головной мозг и голова на плечах. Вокруг него вращаются все вопросы, связанные с созданиями, как и все, что относится к телу, зависят от мозга. Среди всего, что есть в человеческом теле и в его душе, лучшим считается разум, а Имам является всеобщим разумом ('Акл ал-Кулли) в мире, который объединяет всех людей мира".

    Работа «Степени совершенства» помимо того что будет использована как справочник для современных шиитских общин всех вероисповеданий, также является бесценным источником классического мышления Фатимидов и необходимой для студентов, занимающихся историей, философией и богословию Ислама.
































































  • Предисловие и Признательность xiii
    Введение1
    Автор и его работы 4
    Содержание «Китаб Исбат ал-Имама»9
    Темы в тексте 12
    Степени совершенства17
    Описание арабских рукописей26
    Замечания по переводу27
    Перевод«Китаб Исбат ал-Имама»: :
    Книга, подтверждающая Имамат29
    Избранная библиография 96
    Английский индекс108
    Арабский индекс
    Арабский текст
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    Ms. (R) 56 C.1. Library of The Institute of Ismaili Studies.


    The following variants of al-Naysaburi’s above work used in this study are also housed at the Institute’s Library:


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