This article discusses the history of opposition to existing rulers by various ethnic and religious groups throughout the Umayyad and Abbasid empires. Various communities also offered a substantial amount of opposition to the Sunni establishment. Toward the end of the Abbasid reign, resurgence in Persian culture and language facilitated the establishment of decentralised, local, ruling dynasties throughout the Abbasid lands. Therefore, until the arrival of the Mongols, the Abbasid had to contend with uprisings and revolts, a number of which expressed strong local, cultural, and linguistic influence.
Co-Director and Head of the Department of Academic Research and Publications
An authority in Shi'i studies, with special reference to its Ismaili tradition, Dr. Daftary has published and lectured widely in these fields of Islamic studies. In 2011 a Festschrift entitled Fortresses of the Intellect was produced to honour Dr. Daftary by a number of his colleagues and peers.