Cognition, knowledge, gnosis. In one strand of modern Islamic discourse, the term is used for an amalgamated category which includes the mystical experience, sufism, esoteric doctrine and monist philosophy and is related to Shiism . It is related to the thought of al–Kirmani (d. 1021) and the Epistles of the Ikhwan al–Safa on the one hand and al–Farabi (d. 950), al–Amiri (d. 992) and Ibn Sina (d. 1037) on the other hand. Major exponents are al–Suhrawardi (d. 1191), Ibn Arabi (d. 1240) and Haydar Amuli (d. 1305). The tradition is presented as reaching its climax in Safavid times with Mir Damad (d. 1630) and Mulla Sadra (d. 1640). Later authors included are Sabzavari (d. 1873) and Khomeyni before his involvement in politics in 1963. See arif .